Cultures and BehaviorBy
- Yvette Reisinger, PhD, Associate Professor at the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA
In recent years there has been a considerable interest in the cultural aspects of tourism such as the impacts of culture on tourism planning, development, management, and marketing. However, the focus has been on material forms of culture such as arts, music, or crafts. The impacts of national culture on tourist behavior and travel decision-making have not been paid much attention. Only in the last two years have cross-cultural issues begun to generate significant interest among academics. An examination of cultural characteristics and differences is extremely important to the tourism industry because todayâs tourism environment is becoming increasingly international. Advances in technology, and improved communication and transportation have enhanced peoplesâ mobility and travel such that exposure to culturally different societies, cultures exchanges and interactions is now commonplace. It is imperative for industry representatives, who operate in the international business environment and deal with foreign tourists on a daily basis, to understand the influence of national cultures of their customers. Unfortunately, information on the nature of the cultural differences between international tourists and locals is not readily available in tourism literature. The concept of culture is very complex. The analysis of cultural differences in a multidisciplinary tourism context and/or application of the literature on cultural differences in the abstract concepts such as satisfaction, attitude or loyalty (that have different meanings in different cultures) to the tourism context create problems. Although the effects of national characteristics on consumer behavior in general have been investigated in several research studies, more information is required concerning the cultural differences in the tourism context. This book will bring these concepts to the undergraduate student in tourism, as well as students in the related fields of marketing, management, international business, and cross-cultural communication. Designed as a textbook, it will organized and presented in an integrated and relevant way for the benefit of a worldwide audience.
Undergraduate students in tourism. Grad. students and tourism practitioners who deal with cross-cultural issues and communication
Published: March 2009
Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann
- Table of ContentsAcknowledgementsPrefaceList of TablesList of FiguresForewordIntroductionAimsScopeReader benefitsGeneral marketPart One International Tourism: The Global Environment 1 Globalization, tourism and cultureIntroduction1.1 The concept and roots of globalization1.2 Benefits and criticism of globalization1.3 Globalization and the tourism industry 1.3.1 The influence of globalization on tourism1.3.2 Forms and examples of globalization in tourism1.3.3 A new type of tourist1.3.4 A new type of tourism1.4 Globalization and culture1.4.1 The emergence of globalized consumer culture? 1.4.2 Global consumer and global products?1.4.3 Disappearance of local cultures?1.4.4 Cultural homogenization?1.4.5 Product standardization or customization? 1.4.6 Cultural heterogenization?1.4.7 Cultural convergence or divergence? 1.4.8 Cultural hybridization?1.4.9 Cultural commoditization? 1.4.10 Cultural deterioration, loss, adaptation or change?1.4.11 Consumerism a bad thing for tourism?1.4.12 Globalization and disappearance of local identity?1.4.13 Resistance to cultural change and emergence of local identity1.4.14 Glocalisation1.4.15 Local internationalization and regional cooperation1.5 Benefits and limitations of globalization in tourism 1.6 Challenges of globalization in tourism1.7 The future of globalization: Americanization of culture, cosmopolitan culture, cultural hybridization, cultural disappearance or culture clash?SummaryDiscussion points and questions Further readingCase Study 1.1: The emergence of a global tourist culture? Disneyland resorts spread over the worldWebsite linksReferences2 Cultural diversity Introduction2.1 The concept of cultural diversity2.1.1 Definition2.1.2 Interpretation of cultural diversity2.1.3 How did the concept of cultural diversity develop? 2.1.4 How to measure cultural diversity?2.1.5 Is cultural diversity important? 2.1.6 The benefits of cultural diversity 2.1.7 The influence of cultural diversity on tourism and hospitality2.2 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity2.3 The future of cultural diversity2.4 Challenges for the tourism and hospitality industrySummaryDiscussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 2.1: American in ParisCase Study 2.2: Creativity in a tense situationCase Study 2.3: Promoting the unpromotionalWebsite linksReferencesPart Two Cultural Theories and Practices3 Intercultural theories Introduction3.1 Communication Resourcefulness Theory (CRT)3.2 Episode Representation Theory (ERT)3.3 Expectations Theory (ET)3.4 Cultural Identity Negotiation Theory (CINT)3.5 Meaning of Meaning Theory3.6 Network Theory in Intercultural Communication3.7 Taxonomic Approach (TA) 3.8 Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory (AUMT) 3.9 Stranger Theory3.10 Face-Negotiation Theory3.11 Intercultural Adaptation Theory (IAT) 3.12 Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) 3.13 Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMMT)3.14 Constructivist Theory (CT) SummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther reading Website linksReferences4 Cultural practices and tourism impacts on cultureIntroduction 4.1 Erosion of local cultures 4.2 Cultural commoditization and transformation4.3 Cultural hostility 4.4 Cultural arrogance4.5 Authenticity of tourism experiences4.6 Renaissance of traditional art forms4.7 Marketing of culture and violation of rights to own cultural heritage4.8 Culture change4.9 Culture diffusion4.10 Cultural borrowing4.11 Cultural drift 4.12 Acculturation 4.13 Cultural adaptation4.14 Cultural adjustment4.15 Culture assimilation 4.16 Enculturation4.17 Demonstration effect4.18 Cultural conflictSummaryDiscussion points and questions Further readingsCase Study 4.1: Discovering the Maori culture Website linksReferencesPart Three Culture and Cultural Differences5 Culture Introduction5.1 Definition of culture5.2 Culture as civilization5.3 Cultures by region5.4 Culture as religion 5.5 The worldâs major religions5.6 Religion by region5.7 Types and levels of culture 5.8 Civilization5.9 Types of cultures in tourism5.10 The purpose of culture5.11 Characteristics of culture 5.12 Subcultures5.13 Culture versus nationality5.14 Culture versus country of residence5.15 Culture versus country of birth5.16 Cultural identity5.17 Cultural distance 5.18 The impact of cultural distance on travel 5.19 The measurement of cultural distanceSummaryDiscussion points and questions Further readingCase Study 5.1: Micro-cultures of the U.S. Website linksReferences6 Cultural variabilityIntroduction6.1 Sources of cultural differences6.2 Cultural values6.2.1 Concept and definitions 6.2.2 Culture and values6.2.3 Value system and value orientation6.2.4 Value orientation 6.2.5 Types of values6.2.6 Classification of values6.2.7 Measurement and analysis of values6.2.8 Value studies in tourism6.2.9 Cultural value dimensions188.8.131.52 Parsonâs pattern variables184.108.40.206 Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's value orientation220.127.116.11 Stewartâs cultural patterns 18.104.22.168 Hall's cultural differentiation 22.214.171.124 Hofstede's dimensions of cultural variability126.96.36.199 Bondâs Confucian cultural patterns 188.8.131.52 Argyle's cultural differentiation 184.108.40.206 Scheinâs, Trompenaarsâ and Maznevskiâs cultural differentiation220.127.116.11 Schneider and Barsouxâs cultural assumptions18.104.22.168 Inglehart's cultural dimensions22.214.171.124 Minkovâs World Value Survey SummaryDiscussion points and questions Further readingExercisesCase Study 6.1: The U.S. cultureWebsite linksReferences7 Cultural influences on intercultural communicationIntroduction7.1 The concept of communication 7.2 What is intercultural communication? 7.3 Difficulties in intercultural communication7.3.1 Verbal signals7.3.2 Non-verbal signals7.3.3 Relationship patterns7.3.4 Conversation style7.3.5 Interaction style7.3.6 Values7.3.7 Time orientation 7.3.8 Context orientation7.4 Is intercultural communication possible? 7.5 Ethnocentrism 7.6 Stereotyping7.7 Prejudices7.8 Racism7.9 Strategies for improving intercultural communication 7.10 The ethics of intercultural communication SummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther readingCase Study 7.1: Courtesy and politeness in Thailand and AustraliaWebsite linksReferences 8 Cultural influences on social interactionIntroduction8.1 Concept and definitions8.2 Social interaction in tourism 8.3 Intercultural social interaction 8.4 Types of intercultural interaction8.5 Model of cross-cultural social interaction8.6 Contact hypothesis 8.7 Difficulties in cross-cultural interaction8.8 Culture shockSummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther readingsCase Study 8.1: Shanghai night or nightmare?Website linksReferences9 Cultural influences on rules of social interactionIntroduction9.1 Rules of social interaction9.2 Orders and types of rules9.3 Relationship rules9.4 Cultural influences on rules of social interaction 9.5 Understanding rules of social interaction9.6 Breaking rules9.7 Cross-cultural differences in rules of social interaction SummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther readingsCase Study 9.1: Universal and specific rules of social relationshipswebsitesReferences10 Cultural influences on service Introduction10.1 The concept of service10.2 Service encounter10.3 Service classification 10.4 Key characteristics of service10.5 Importance of service perceptions 10.6 Cultural differences in expectations from service 10.7 Service quality and value10.8 Service satisfaction10.9 Do cultural differences always matter? SummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther readingsCase Study 10.1: Chinese travelers in FranceWebsite linksReferences11 Cultural influences on ethical behaviorIntroduction11.1 The concept of ethics11.2 Ethics in tourism11.3 Ethics in a cross-cultural context11.4 Cultural influences in ethical behavior 11.5 The most debatable business ethics issues 11.6 Conflicting ethical behavior and practices in tourism and hospitality. Ethical dilemmas 11.7 Theories and frameworks dealing with ethical dilemmas 11.8 Strategies for managing business ethical dilemmas 11.9 Global Code of Ethics for Tourism SummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther reading Case Study 11.1: Global Code of Ethics for TourismWebsite linksReferencesPart Four Tourist Behavior12 Human behavior: its nature and determinants Introduction12.1 The concept of human behavior 12.2 Environmental factors influencing human behavior 12.3 Theories of human behavior 12.4 Basic needs of human behavior12.5 Factors influencing human needs12.6 The concept of tourist behavior 12.7 The nature of tourist behavior 12.8 The meaning of tourist behavior12.9 The importance of studying tourist behavior12.10 The importance of studying tourist behavior in a cross-cultural context12.11 Benefits of understanding tourist behavior in a cross-cultural context SummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther reading Case Study 12.1: The Asian womanâs shopping experience: New research from Thailand Website links References13 Consumer buying behavior Introduction13.1 Environmental Factors 13.1.1 Environmental stimuli13.2 Buyerâs factors13.2.1 Buyerâs personal characteristics13.2.2 Buyerâs psychological characteristics 13.2.3 Decision process13.3 Other theories of consumer decision-makingSummaryDiscussion points and questionsFurther reading Website linksReferences14 Cultural influences on tourist buying behaviorIntroduction14.1 Cultural influence on buyerâs personal characteristics14.1.1 Gender roles14.1.2 Lifestyle and activities14.1.3 Personality14.1.4 The self concept14.2 Cultural influences on buyerâs psychological characteristics14.2.1 Motivation and needs14.2.2 Perception and image14.2.3 Learning and knowledge 14.2.4 Attitudes 14.2.5 Attribution14.3 Cultural influences on buyerâs decision process14.3.1 Need recognition14.3.2 Information search and choice of information sources 126.96.36.199 The role of reference groups188.8.131.52 The role of opinion leadership184.108.40.206 Family decision making220.127.116.11 Buying roles 18.104.22.168 Level of decision-making 22.214.171.124 Buying new products 14.3.3 Criteria and product evaluation14.3.4 Purchase decision126.96.36.199 Purchase risk14.3.5 Post-purchase behavior/decision188.8.131.52 Satisfaction184.108.40.206 Loyalty and commitment220.127.116.11 Criticism and complaints18.104.22.168 Product disposal14.3.6 Beyond the purchase decision22.214.171.124 Memories and meanings 126.96.36.199 Emotions and feelingsSummary Discussion points and questions Further readingCase Study 14.1: Japanese tourist behavior Case Study 14.2: Cultural influences on tourist behaviorWebsite linksReferencesPart Five Cross-Cultural Comparison 15 Cultural differences among international societies Introduction15.1 Africa15.2 Asia 15.2.1 Common Asian values15.2.2 China15.2.3 Indonesia15.2.4 Japan 15.2.5 Malaysia15.2.6 Pakistan15.2.7 The Philippines15.2.8 South Korea15.2.9 Thailand15.2.10 Vietnam15.3 Australia15.4 Europe 15.4.1 Important European values 15.4.2 France15.4.3 Germany15.4.4 Italy15.4.5 Poland15.4.6 Russia15.4.7 Spain15.4.8 United Kingdom15.5 India 15.6 Latin America 15.6.1 Common Latin American values15.6.2 Mexico15.6.3 Brazil15.7 Middle East 15.7.1 Common Arab values15.7.2 Saudi Arabia15.7.3 United Arab Emirates15.8 North America 15.8.1 Canada 15.8.2 The United States SummaryDiscussion points and questions Case Study 15.1: Managing in Asia: Cross-cultural dimensionsWebsite linksReferencesPart Six Multicultural Competence 16 Multicultural competence in a global worldIntroduction16.1 The concept of multicultural competence16.2 Dimensions of multicultural competence16.3 Other factors influencing multicultural competence 16.4 Multicultural competence as a process16.5 Multicultural competence development levels16.6 Multiculturalism assessment techniques16.7 An educational challengeSummaryDiscussion points and questions Further reading Case Study 16.1: One practical solution to overcoming the language barrierWebsite linksReferencesConclusion