Table of ContentsPresent Day Climates1 Interhemispheric Effects of Interannual and Decadal ENSO - like Climate Variation on the Americas Dettinger, Michael D., D.S. Battista, G.J. McCabe, R.d. Garreaud, and C.M. Bitz 2 Interannual to Multidecadal Climate Variability and its Relationship to Global Sea Surface Temperatures Enfield, David B. and A.M. Nestas-NuÃ±ez 3 Polar Air Outbreaks in the Americas: Assessments and Impacts during Recent and Past Climates Marengo, Jose A. and J.C. Rogers 4 Globality and Optimality in Climate Field Reconstructions from Proxy Data Evans, M.N., A. Kaplan, R. Villalba, and M.A. CaneHuman Dimensions of Climate Change5 The Effects of Explosive Volcanism on Simple to Complex Societies in Ancient Middle America Payson Sheets 6 Abrupt Climate Change and Pre-Columbian Cultural Collapse Brenner, Mark, D.A. Hodell, J.H. Curtis, M.F. Rosenmeier, M.W. Binford, and M.B. Abbott 7 Human Dimensions of Late Pleistocene/Holocene Arid Events in Southern South America NuÃ±ez, Lautaro, M. Grosjean, and I. Cartajena 8 Assessing the Synchroneity of Glacier Fluctuations in the Western Cordillera of the Americas During the Last Millenium Luckman, B.H. and Villalba, R. 9 Volcanic Signals in Temperature Reconstructions Based on Tree-Ring Records for North and South America Boninsegna, Jose A. and M.K. Hughes 10 Decadal-Scale Climatic Variability along the Extratropical Western Coast of the Americas: Evidence from the Tree- Ring Records Villalba, R., R.D. D'Arrigo, E.R. Cook, G. Wiles, and G.C. Jacoby Long-Term Climate VariabilityGeomorphic Evidence 11 Glaciation During Marine Isotope Stage 2 in the American Cordillera Clapperton, Chalmers and Geoffrey O. Seltzer 12 Late Quaternary Colian Records of the Americas and their Paleoclimatic Significance Muhs, D. and M. ZÃ¡rate 13 Periods of Wet and Dry Climate in Cuba: Evaluation of expression in Karstof Sierra de San Carlos PajÃ³n, J.M., I. Hernandez, Efren Jaimex, F. Ortega, and Jorge Macle Lacustrine Evidence 14 Identifying Paleoenvironmental Change Across South America and North America Using High-Resolution Seismic Stratigraphy in Lakes Ariztegui, D., F.S. Anselmetti, G.O. Seltzer, K. Kelts, and K. D' Agostino 15 Holocene Climate patterns in the Americas Inferred from Paleocolimnological Records Fritz, S.C., and Sarah E. Metcalfe, and Walter E. Dean 16 Full and Late Glacial Lake Records along the PEP 1 Transect: Their Role in Developing Interhemispheric Paleoclimate Interactions Bradybury, J. Plarr, Martin Grosjean, Scott Stine, and Florence Sylvestre Vegetation Evidence 17 Paleotemperature Estimates of the Lowland Americas Between 30 Degrees South and 30 degrees North at the Last Glacial Maximum Bush, M.B., M. Stute, M.P. Ledru, H. Behling, P.A. Colinvaux, P.E. De Oliveira, E.C. Grimm, H. Hooghiemstra, S. Haberle, B.W. Leyden, M.L. Salgado-Labouriau, R. Webb 18 Neotropical Savanna Environments in Space and Time: Late Quaternary Interhemispheric Comparisons Behling, H. and H. Hooghiemstra 19 Holocene Vegetation Changes in the Americas Grimm, E., Hermann Behling, Julio Betancourt, S. Lozano-Garcia 20 Late Glacial Vegetation Records in the Americas and Climatic Implications Ledru, M.P. and P. Mourguiart 21 Temperate Coastal Regions in the Americas During the Last Glacial Maximum and Early Holocene Whitlock, C., V. Markgraf, P. Bartlein, A. Ashworth 22 Late Glacial Climate Variability GCM Modeling Experiments: An Overview Peteet, D.M.