Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP

The Next Internet


  • Jean-Philippe Vasseur, M.S. in Computer Science, Distinguished Engineer at Cisco Systems
  • Adam Dunkels, Swedish Institute of Computer Science

Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet explains why the Internet Protocol (IP) has become the protocol of choice for smart object networks. IP has successfully demonstrated the ability to interconnect billions of digital systems on the global Internet and in private IP networks. Once smart objects can be easily interconnected, a whole new class of smart object systems can begin to evolve. The book discusses how IP-based smart object networks are being designed and deployed. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 demonstrates why the IP architecture is well suited to smart object networks, in contrast to non-IP based sensor network or other proprietary systems that interconnect to IP networks (e.g. the public Internet of private IP networks) via hard-to-manage and expensive multi-protocol translation gateways that scale poorly. Part 2 examines protocols and algorithms, including smart objects and the low power link layers technologies used in these networks. Part 3 describes the following smart object network applications: smart grid, industrial automation, smart cities and urban networks, home automation, building automation, structural health monitoring, and container tracking.
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Networking and wireless engineers and researchers with functions or titles that include communication engineer, network architect, network designer, systems engineer, network operator, network engineer, as well as product managers and service companies to CEOs, CIOs, etc.


Book information

  • Published: June 2010
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-375165-2


"JP Vasseur and Adam Dunkels have written an important and timely guide to the rapidly developing field of smart technologies and the Internet. This book provides a clear picture of key technical issues that are useful to both the expert and layman. As we continue to build out the smart grid, the 'electric internet,' I predict this book will become required reading for electric utility smart grid teams." - David Mohler, Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, Duke Energy

"As the CEO of my company, I have read it with pleasure and will transfer it to all engineers in my company in charge of developing IP V6 applications." - Paul Bertrand, Board member and founder of IPSO (IP for Smart Objects), Creator and Chairman at Watteco

"The authors of this book offer a rich and thoughtful exploration of this new Internet canvas on which the 21st Century will unfold. Prediction will be hard; we are all just going to have to live through it to find out what happens!" - Vinton Cerf, Internet Pioneer

Table of Contents




Part 1 The Architecture

Chapter 1 What Are Smart Objects?

1.1 Where Do Smart Objects Come From?

1.2 Challenges for Smart Objects

1.3 Conclusions

Chapter 2 IP Protocol Architecture

2.1 Introduction

2.2 From NCP to TCP/IP

2.3 Fundamental TCP/IP Architectural Design Principles

2.4 The Delicate Subject of Cross-layer Optimization

2.5 Why Is IP Layering also Important for Smart Object Networks?

2.6 Conclusions

Chapter 3 Why IP for Smart Objects?

3.1 Interoperability

3.2 An Evolving and Versatile Architecture

3.3 Stability and Universality of the Architecture

3.4 Scalability

3.5 Configuration and Management

3.6 Small Footprint

3.7 What Are the Alternatives?

3.8 Why Are Gateways Bad?

3.9 Conclusions

Chapter 4 IPv6 for Smart Object Networks and the Internet of Things

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Depletion of the IPv4 Address Space

4.3 NAT: A (Temporary) Solution to IPv4 Address Exhaustion

4.4 Architectural Discussion

4.5 Conclusions

Chapter 5 Routing

5.1 Routing in IP Networks

5.2 Specifics of Routing in LLNs

5.3 Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Routing

5.4 Conclusions

Chapter 6 Transport Protocols

6.1 UDP

6.2 TCP

6.3 UDP for Smart Objects

6.4 TCP for Smart Objects

6.5 Conclusions

Chapter 7 Service Discovery

7.1 Service Discovery in IP Networks

7.2 Service Discovery Protocols

7.3 Conclusions

Chapter 8 Security for Smart Objects

8.1 The Three Properties of Security

8.2 Security by Obscurity

8.3 Encryption

8.4 Security Mechanisms for Smart Objects

8.5 Security Mechanisms in the IP Architecture

8.6 Conclusions

Chapter 9 Web Services for Smart Objects

9.1 Web Service Concepts

9.2 The Performance of Web Services for Smart Objects

9.3 Pachube: A Web Service System for Smart Objects

9.4 Conclusions

Chapter 10 Connectivity Models for Smart Object Networks

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Autonomous Smart Object Networks Model

10.3 The Internet of Things

10.4 The Extended Internet

10.5 Conclusions

Part 2 The Technology

Chapter 11 Smart Object Hardware and Software

11.1 Hardware

11.2 Software for Smart Objects

11.3 Energy Management

11.4 Conclusions

Chapter 12 Communication Mechanisms for Smart Objects

12.1 Communication Patterns for Smart Objects

12.2 Physical Communication Standards

12.3 IEEE 802.15.4

12.4 IEEE 802.11 and WiFi

12.5 PLC

12.6 Conclusions

Chapter 13 uIP - A Lightweight IP Stack

13.1 Principles of Operation

13.2 uIP Memory Buffer Management

13.3 uIP Application Program Interface

13.4 uIP Protocol Implementations

13.5 Memory Footprint

13.6 Conclusions

Chapter 14 Standardization

14.1 Introduction

14.2 The IETF

14.3 IETF Working Groups Related to IP for Smart Objects

14.4 Conclusions

Chapter 15 IPv6 for Smart Object Networks - A Technology Refresher

15.1 IPv6 for Smart Object Networks?

15.2 The IPv6 Packet Headers

15.3 IPv6 Addressing Architecture

15.4 The ICMP for IPv6

15.5 Neighbor Discovery Protocol

15.6 Load Balancing

15.7 IPv6 Autoconfiguration

15.8 DHCPv6

15.9 IPv6 QoS

15.10 IPv6 over an IPv4 Backbone Network

15.11 IPv6 Multicast

15.12 Conclusions

Chapter 16 The 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer

16.1 Terminology

16.2 The 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer

16.3 Conclusions

Chapter 17 RPL Routing in Smart Object Networks

17.1 Introduction

17.2 What Is a Low-power and Lossy Network?

17.3 Routing Requirements

17.4 Routing Metrics in Smart Object Networks

17.5 The Objective Function

17.6 RPL: The New Routing Protocol for Smart Object Networks

17.7 Conclusions

Chapter 18 The IP for Smart Object Alliance

18.1 Mission and Objectives of the IPSO Alliance

18.2 IPSO Organization

18.3 A Key Activity of the IPSO Alliance: Interoperability Testing

18.4 Conclusions

Chapter 19 Non-IP Smart Object Technologies

19.1 ZigBee

19.2 Z-Wave

19.3 Conclusions

Part 3 The Applications

Chapter 20 Smart Grid

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Terminology

20.3 Core Grid Network Monitoring and Control

20.4 Smart Metering (NAN)

20.5 HAN

20.6 Conclusions

Chapter 21 Industrial Automation

21.1 Opportunities

21.2 Challenges

21.3 Use Cases

21.4 Conclusions

Chapter 22 Smart Cities and Urban Networks

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Urban Environmental Monitoring

22.3 Social Networks

22.4 Intelligent Transport Systems

22.5 Conclusions

Chapter 23 Home Automation

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Main Applications and Use Cases

23.3 Technical Challenges and Network Characteristics

23.4 Conclusions

Chapter 24 Building Automation

24.1 BAS Reference Model

24.2 Emerging Building Automation Applications

24.3 Existing Building Automation Systems

24.4 Building Automation Sensors and Actuator Characteristics

24.5 Emerging Smart-Object-based BAS

24.6 Conclusions

Chapter 25 Structural Health Monitoring

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Main Applications and Use Case

25.3 Technical Challenges

25.4 Data Acquisition and Analysis

25.5 Future Applications and Outlook

25.6 Conclusions

Chapter 26 Container Tracking

26.1 GE CommerceGuard

26.2 IBM Secure Trade Lane

26.3 Conclusions