Integrative Plant Anatomy


  • William Dickison, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.A.

From this modern and profusely illustrated book, the reader will learn not just the basics, which are amply reviewed, but also how plant anatomy is integrated with a wide variety of other disciplines, such as plant breeding, forensic analysis, medicine, food science, wood and fiber products, and the arts. The author presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines, and addresses the central role of anatomy by consolidating previously scattered information into a single volume. Integrative Plant Anatomy highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of present and future problems. It succeeds in integrating diverse areas of botany, as well as the non-biological sciences, the arts, and numerous other fields of human endeavor.
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Professional botanists, academics, and agricultural and forestry professionals.


Book information

  • Published: March 2000
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-215170-5


"This is an ambitious and scholarly text, and Dr. Dickison should be congratulated for his efforts."
—Thomas L. Rost, University of California at Davis

"I commend the author for his fresh and novel approach to the study of plant anatomy. Presently, there is no textbook available that interrelates plant anatomy with systematics, physiology, ecology, genetics, anthropology, and the other fields of study covered in the manuscript; this approach has merit and addresses a need as far as plant anatomy and its applications are concerned."
—Terence W. Lucansky, University of Florida
"The author is completely successful in fulfilling his objective of conveying the importance of plant anatomy as a field of endeavor with widespread applications to other fields. Dickison's approach is refreshingly different and likely to have great appeal to the novice.... For example, the manuscript was easy to read, unlike most [plant] anatomy books, because of minimal use of technical jargon."
—Dale M.J. Mueller, Texas A&M University

Table of Contents

Copyright © 2001 Harcourt/Academic Press All rights reserved.THIS MATERIAL may not be used, directly or indirectly, for any paidservice, such as document delivery, interlibrary loan, or any othersystematic supply or distribution of material. Copyright and othernotices or disclaimers may not be removed, modified or obscured.Harcourt/Academic Press or Harcourt General, Inc. reserve the right towithdraw on-line access to this content without notice at any time.PREFACE xvACKNOWLEDGMENTS xviiPart I.ANATOMICAL FOUNDATION OF THE PLANT BODY:AN OVERVIEW 11 Plant Growth, Development, and Cellular Organization 3Plant Growth 3Meristem Function 4Cell Differentiation 6Terms Used in the Description of Plant Cells 9Embryology 10The Plant Cell 13The Cell Wall 14The Cell Plate and Middle Lamella 15The Primary Wall 15Plasmodesmata 23The Secondary Wall 24Warty Layer 27Wall Pits 28Cell Membranes 30Cytoplasmic Organelles 32Vacuome 37Starch 38Nucleus 39Nonprotoplasmic Mineral Desposition 40Summary 44Additional Reading 462 Origin and Structure of the Primary Plant Body 51Structure and Function of the Angiosperm Vegetative Shoot Apex 51Shoot Apex Organization 52Chimeras 55ICONTENTSviiStructure and Function of the Root Apex 57Differentiation of Primary Tissues 62Leaf Initiation and Development 64Classification of Tissues 66Dermal Tissue System 67Cuticle and Epicuticular Waxes 68Specialized Epidermal Cells 70Fundamental Tissue System 74Parenchyma 74Collenchyma 76Sclerenchyma 79Sclereids 80Fibers 82Laticiferous Tissue System 85Vascular Tissue Systems 86Xylem 89Tracheids 90Vessel Elements 90Primary Xylem Tracheary Elements 92Phloem 93Sieve Tube Elements 94Companion Cells 99Sieve Cells 101Differentiation of Primary Vascular Tissues 102Primary Xylem Differentiation 103Cytodifferentiation of Tracheary Cells 107Primary Phloem Differentiation 110Vascular Differentiation in Leaves 112Summary 115Additional Reading 1163 Tissue Organization in Stems, Leaves, and Roots 121Stems 121Vascular Bundles 122Stem Structure 126Leaves 129Lamina Structure 132Leaf Venation 134Gymnosperm Leaves 141Roots 142Origin of Lateral Roots 148Mycorrhizae 150Root and Bacteria Interactions 153Summary 155Additional Reading 157viii CONTENTSCONTENTS ix4 Origin and Structure of the Secondary Plant Body 161Vascular Cambium Formation 162Structure and Function of the Vascular Cambium 166Cell Division in the Cambium 170Anomalous Secondary Growth 173Secondary Xylem (Wood) 178Secondary Phloem 185Structure and Function of the Cork Cambium and Periderm 186Secondary Growth in Monocotyledons 195Periderm Formation in Monocotyledons 197Summary 198Additional Reading 201Part IIEVOLUTIONARY, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND ECOLOGICALPLANT ANATOMY 2035 Evolution and Systematics 205Systematic Plant Anatomy 205Variation in Anatomical Characters 206Xylem Evolution 208Use of Wood Anatomy in Systematics 216Nodal Anatomy 219Foliar Epidermis 221Trichomes 225Mineral Inclusions 227Ultrastructure 229Phylogenetic Systematics 229Summary 233Additional Reading 2346 Macromorphology 237Floral Morphology and Anatomy 238Homology of Floral Appendages 240Conservative and Vestigial Vascular Bundles 244Nectaries of Salix 246Pseudomonomerous Gynoecia 247Inverted Vascular Bundles 250The Inferior Ovary 250Leaves and Stipules 252Two-Bundled Structures in Monocotyledons 254Summary 255Additional Reading 256IIx CONTENTS7 Structure and Function 259Vascular Tissues 260Phloem Structure and Translocation 260Minor Leaf Veins and Phloem Loading and Unloading 265Kranz Anatomy and Photosynthesis 267Xylem Structure and Water Movement 272Water Conductance 277Hydraulic Segmentation and Safety 282Water Flow 284Anatomical Responses to Mineral Deficiency 286Summary 289Additional Reading 2908 Ecological Anatomy 295Habitat and Plant Structure 295Ecological Leaf Anatomy 297Sun and Shade Leaves 298Xeromorphic Leaves 301Ericoid Leaves 302Sclerophyllous Leaves 302Succulent Leaves 303Poikilohydric Plants 304Halophytic Leaves 306Alpine Plants 307Epiphytic Plants 308Hydromorphic Leaves 308Ecological Wood Anatomy 312Growth Rings 313Hydraulic Architecture 315Adaptive Radiation in Dilleniaceae 318Roots 320Xeromorphic Roots 320Hydromorphic Roots 321Flooded and Drought-Stressed Roots 322Aerial Roots 322Frost Hardiness 322Anatomy and Pollution 324Anatomy and Plant Resistance 325Effects of Pollution on Wood 326Gaseous Air Pollutants 327Ozone Injury to Plants 328Acid Rain 329Carbon Dioxide 329Ionizing Radiation 330Ultraviolet B Radiation 331CONTENTS xiInsecticides and Herbicides 332Summary 333Additional Reading 334Part IIIECONOMIC AND APPLIED PLANT ANATOMY 3399 Genetics and Plant Breeding 341Molecular Genetic Analysis 342Anatomy as an Indicator of Hybridization 342Gene Expression and Anatomical Traits 345The Wilted Gene 345Trichome Development 347Corn Leaf Development 347Cell Wall Genes 348Floral Development 349Anatomy, Heredity, and Plant Breeding 349Wood Quality 350Summary 352Additional Reading 35310 Defense Mechanisms and Structural Responses of Plantsto Diseases, Pests, and Mechanical Injury 357The Nature of Plant Defenses 358Responses of Plants to Wounding and Invasion by Microorganisms 359Abscission 362Tissue Regeneration 362Grafting 368Cytological Reactions to Invasion by Parasites 369Structural Bases of Resistance 371Trichomes 372Laticifers 372Dutch Elm Disease and Tyloses 373Heartwood 375Structural Aspects of Virus Movement in Plants 376Summary 378Additional Reading 38011 Herbs, Spices, and Drugs 383Classification of Secretory Structures 384External Secretory Structures 385IIIxii CONTENTSInternal Secretory Structures 386Anatomy of Secretory Structures 387Secretory Cells and Cavities 389Anatomical and Pharmacognostic Studies on Herb, Spice, and Drug Plants 394Cinnamon 394Ginger 394Peppermint 394Cinchona 396Cascara Sagrada 396Nirbisi 396Summary 396Additional Reading 39712 Fibers, Fiber Products, and Forage Fiber 399Extraxylary Fibers 400Xylary Fibers and Paper Manufacture 402Reaction Wood 406Compression Wood 407Tension Wood and Gelatinous Fibers 408Forage "Fiber" and Animal Nutrition 410Grass Leaf Digestion 413Legume Digestion 414Summary 416Additional Reading 41713 Forensic Science and Animal Food Habits 421Plant Anatomy as Forensic Evidence 422Plant Cell Identification 423Application of Anatomical Evidence in Criminal and Civil Law 425Animal Food Habits 431Summary 433Additional Reading 43414 Archaeology, Anthropology, and Climatology 437Wood Anatomy and the Environment 438Dendrochronology 439Methods of Dendrochronology 441Dendrochronology Case Studies 444Dendroclimatology 446Tree Rings and Other Environmental Factors 447Diets and Artifacts of Prehistoric Peoples 448Summary 450Additional Reading 451CONTENTS xiii15 Properties and Utilization of Wood 453Features and Appearance of Sawed or Split Lumber 454Physical Properties of Wood 459Specific Gravity and Density 459Wood and Water 460Permeability 463Sapwood and Heartwood 465Mechanical Properties of Wood 465Stiffness and Strength 467Hardness and Toughness 468Application of Wood Anatomy to the Field of Biomedical Research 469Summary 470Additional Reading 47116 The Arts and Antiques 473Identification and Deterioration of Plant Tissues and Cells Used inObject Construction 474Deterioration 475Dendrochronological Dating 476Green-Stained Wood 480Identification of Antique Upholstery Filling and Wooden Furniture 484Antique Musical Instruments 485Musical Instruments and Wood Technical Properties 485Stringed Instruments 485Wind Instruments 489Summary 489Additional Reading 492GENERAL ANATOMICAL REFERENCES 495PLANT ANATOMY AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB 499GLOSSARY 503INDEX 517