Integrated Flow Modeling book cover

Integrated Flow Modeling

Integrated Flow Modeling presents the formulation, development and application of an integrated flow simulator (IFLO). Integrated flow models make it possible to work directly with seismically generated data at any time during the life of the reservoir. An integrated flow model combines a traditional flow model with a petrophysical model. The text discusses properties of porous media within the context of multidisciplinary reservoir modeling, and presents the technical details needed to understand and apply the simulator to realistic problems. Exercises throughout the text direct the reader to software applications using IFLO input data sets and an executable version of IFLO provided with the text. The text-software combination provides the resources needed to convey both theoretical concepts and practical skills to geoscientists and engineers.

Hardbound, 304 pages

Published: November 2000

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-50500-2

Contents

  • About the Author.Preface. 1. Overview. 1.1 Program Overview. 1.2 Conventional Black Oil Simulator Equations .1.3 Extended Black Oil Simulator Equations. 1.4 Program Operation. 1.5 Input Data File - ITEMP.DAT. 1.6 Output Data Files. Exercises. 2. Reservoir Structure. 2.1 Coordinate Orientation. 2.2 Traditional Mapping. 2.3 Computer Generated Maps. 2.4 Geostatistical Mapping. 2.5 Bulk Volume and Net Volume. Exercises. 3. Porosity. 3.1 Porosity Defined. 3.2 Net Pore Volume and Saturation. 3.3 Statistics of Porosity Distributions. 3.4 Characteristic Volume. Exercises. 4. Permeability. 4.1 Darcy's Law. 4.2 Permeability. 4.3 Directional Dependence of Permeability. 4.4 Permeability Averaging. Exercises. 5. Critical Sample Size. 5.1 Critical Sample Size for Porosity. 5.2 Permeability Distributions. 5.3 Critical Sample Size for Permeability. 5.4 Measures of Permeability Heterogeneity. Exercises. 6. Petrophysical Model.6.1 Compressional and Shear Velocities. 6.2 Estimates of Moduli. 6.3 Moduli from Acoustic Velocities. 6.4 Acoustic Impedance and Reflection Coefficient. 6.5 Geostatistical Correlations. Exercises. 7. Relative Permeability.7.1 Effective Permeability and Relative Permeability. 7.2 Two-Phase Relative Permeability. 7.3 Averaging Relative Permeability Data. 7.4 Two-Phase Relative Permeability Correlations. 7.5 Three-Phase Relative Permeability Correlations. Exercises. 8. Capillary Pressure.8.1 Basic Concepts. 8.2 Capillary Pressure. 8.3 Capillary Pressure Measurements. 8.4 Capillary Pressure Correlation Methods. Exercises. 9. Extended Rock-Fluid Interactions. 9.1 Miscible Conditions. 9.2 Solid Precipitation. 9.3 Water Blocking. 9.4 Mobility Control. 9.5 Effective Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure.9.6 Transmissibility. Exercises. 10. Fluid Properties. 10.1 Fundamental Fluid Property Concepts. 10.2 Black Oil Model PVT Data. 10.3 Extrapolating Saturated Curves. 10.4 Bubble Point Tracking.10.5 Extended Fluid Properties Model. Exercises. 11. Fluid Displacement. 11.1 Mobility. 11.2 Fractional Flow. 11.3 Recovery Efficiency. 11.4 Production Stages. 11.5 Miscible Displacement Models. Exercises. 12. Formulation of Flow Equations. 12.1 Conservation of Mass. 12.2 Flow Equations for Three-Phase Flow. 12.3 Recasting the Flow Equations. 12.4 Introduction of the Capillary Pressure Concept. 12.5 Extended Black Oil Simulator Equations. Exercises. 13. Source/Sink Terms. 13.1 Productivity Index. 13.2 Rate Constraint Representation. 13.3 Pressure Constraint Representation. 13.4 Well Constraints. 13.5 Aquifer Models. Exercises. 14. Solution of the Extended Flow Equations. 14.1 The Finite Difference Concept. 14.2 Derivative of Accumulation Terms. 14.3 Volume Integration and Discretization. 14.4 Multi-Variable Newton-Raphson IMPES Procedure. Exercises. 15. IFLO Applications.15.1 Monitoring Frontal Advance. 15.2 Scheduling 4-D Seismic Surveys. 15.3 Improved Oil Recovery Examples. Exercises. Appendix A: Introduction to IFLO.A.1 Program Review. A.2 Program Configuration. A.3 Input Data File - ITEMP.DAT. A.4 Example Input Data Sets. Appendix B: Initialization Data. B.1 Model Dimensions and Geometry. B.2 Seismic Velocity Parameters. B.3 Porosity, Permeability, and Transmissibility Distributions. B.4 Rock Regions.B.5 Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Tables. B.6 Fluid PVT Tables. B.7 Miscible Solvent Data. B.8 Pressure and Saturation Initialization. B.9 Run Control Parameters. B.10 Analytic Aquifer Models. Appendix C: Recurrent Data. C. 1 Timestep and Output Control. C.2 Well Information. Appendix D: Program Supplement. D.1 Initialization Options. D.2 Run Control Features. D.3 Output Options.REFERENCESINDEX.

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