Industrial Applications of Batteries

From Cars to Aerospace and Energy Storage

Edited by

  • Michel Broussely, SAFT, Speciality Battery Group, Poitiers, France
  • Gianfranco Pistoia, formerly Research Director, National Research Council, Rome, Italy

Industrial Applications of Batteries looks at both the applications and the batteries and covers the relevant scientific and technological features. Presenting large batteries for stationary applications, e.g. energy storage, and also batteries for hybrid vehicles or different tools. The important aerospace field is covered both in connection with satellites and space missions. Examples of applications include, telecommunications, uninterruptible power supplies, systems for safety/alarms, car accessories, toll collection, asset tracking systems, medical equipment, and oil drilling.The first chapter on applications deals with electric and hybrid vehicles. Four chapters are devoted to stationary applications, i.e. energy storage (from the electric grid or solar/wind energy), load levelling, telecommunications, uninterruptible power supplies, back-up for safety/alarms. Battery management by intelligent systems and prediction of battery life are dealt with in a dedicated chapter. The topic of used battery collection and recycling, with the description of specific treatments for the different systems, is also extensively treated in view of its environmental relevance. Finally, the world market of these batteries is presented, with detailed figures for the various applications.
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Audience

For scientists working in academic or industry. Also accessible to technical people due to the large content of technological information

 

Book information

  • Published: February 2007
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-52160-6


Contents

Chapter 1. Nonaqueous Batteries Used in Industrial Applications (G. Pistoia).
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Primary Lithium Batteries
1.3. Rechargeable Batteries

Chapter 2. Aqueous Batteries Used in Industrial Applications (G. Pistoia).
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Lead/Acid Batteries
2.3. Nickel/Cadmium Batteries
2.4. Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries
2.5. Nickel/Hydrogen Batteries
2.6. Nickel/Iron Batteries
2.7. Nickel/Zinc Batteries
2.8. Zinc/Air Batteries
2.9. Silver/Zinc Batteries
2.10.Zinc/Bromine Batteries
2.11.Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries
2.12.Alkaline Primary Batteries
2.13.Basic Parameters of Aqueous Secondary Batteries

Chapter 3. Characterization of Batteries by Electrochemical and Non-Electrochemical Techniques (D. Aurbach).
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Categories of Battery Materials
3.3. Stages and Levels in Battery Characterization
3.4. A Brief Summary of Available Techniques Related to the Characterization of Batteries
3.5. Typical Studies of Electrolyte Solutions and Solid Electrolytes
3.6. Typical Studies of Electrodes and Electrode Materials
3.7. Measurements of Complicated Batteries
3.8. Theoretical Aspects of Battery Characterization
3.9. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 4. Traction Batteries. EV and HEV (M. Broussely).
4.1. Introduction
4.2. The Different Types of Electric Vehicles
4.3. Battery Technology for Traction
4.4. Conclusion

Chapter 5. Aerospace Applications. I. Satellites, Launchers, Aircraft (Y. Borthomieu, N. Thomas).
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Satellite Batteries
5.3. Launcher Batteries
5.4. Aircraft Batteries

Chapter 6. Aerospace Applications. II. Planetary Exploration Missions (Orbiters, Landers, Rovers and Probes)(B.V. Ratnakumar, M.C. Smart).
6.1. Introduction
6.2. General Characteristics of Space Batteries
6.3. Planetary and Space Exploration Missions
6.4. Past and Current Planetary Missions
6.5. Future Mars Missions
6.6. Aerospace Battery Technologies
6.7. Unique Performance Attributes of Aerospace Li-Ion Batteries
6.8. Lithium Batteries – Advanced Systems
6.9. Concluding Remarks on Rechargeable Batteries

Chapter 7. Stationary Applications. I. Lead-Acid Batteries for Telecommunications and UPS (R. Wagner).
7.1. Introduction
7.2. The Lead-Acid Battery Technology
7.3. Large Batteries
7.4. Improvement of Power Performance
7.5. Features of VRLA Technology
7.6. Gel Batteries
7.7. AGM Batteries
7.8. Future Trends
7.9. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Stationary Applications. II. Load Levelling (J. Kondoh).
8.1. Signification of Stationary Application
8.2. Sodium-Sulfur Battery Systems
8.3. Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems
8.4. Other Secondary Battery Systems
8.5. Other Electric Energy Storage Systems
8.6. Comparison

Chapter 9. Stationary Applications. III. Lead-Acid Batteries for Solar and Wind Energy Storage (R. Wagner).
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Energy Storage for Solar and Wind Systems
9.3. Flooded Batteries
9.4. Large Batteries
9.5. Small Systems with VRLA Batteries
9.6. Large Systems with Gel Batteries
9.7. Further Developments
9.8. Conclusions

Chapter 10. Stationary Applications. IV. The Role of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries (A. Green).
10.1.Introduction
10.2.History
10.3.Chemistry
10.4.Construction Features of Nickel-Cadmium Cells
10.5.Electrical and Mechanical Characteristics
10.6.Cost and Reliability Considerations
10.7.A Large Battery in an Energy Storage Application
10.8.Small Batteries in Telecommunication Applications
10.9.Lifetime and Reliability: The Case of an Old battery
10.10.Nickel-Cadmium Applications Summary

Chapter 11. Miscellaneous Applications. I. Metering, Power Tools, Alarm/Security, Medical Equipments, etc (M. Grimm).
11.1.The Power Sources
11.2.Metering Systems
11.3.Remote Mobile Monitoring
11.4.Automatic Assistance Systems
11.5.Alarm and Security Systems
11.6.Memory Back Up (MBU) – Real Time Clocks (RTC)
11.7.Professional Cordless Tools
11.8.Professional Appliances
11.9.Ambulatory Medical Equipments
11.10.Conclusion

Chapter 12. Miscellaneous Applications. II. Tracking Systems, Toll Collection, Oil Drilling, Car Accessories, Oceanography (H. Yamin et al.).
12.1.Introduction
12.2.Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)
12.3.Electronic Toll Collection
12.4.Automatic Crash Notification (ACN)
12.5.Tracking
12.6.Oil Drilling
12.7.Oceanography

Chapter 13. Battery Management and Life Prediction(B.Y. Liaw, D.D. Friel).
13.1.Definitions
13.2.Monitoring and Measuring
13.3.Battery Management Functions
13.4.Life Prediction

Chapter 14. Battery Collection and Recycling (D. Cheret).
14.1.Introduction
14.2.Eco-efficiency Study on Recycling Techniques
14.3.Trans-Boundary Movement of Batteries within the OECD Member States
14.4.Battery Collection Schemes
14.5.The Particular Example of a Battery Producer: SAFT
14.6.Recycling Rate: What Does It Mean?
14.7.Battery Recycling: The Existing Technologies
14.8.Conclusion

Chapter 15. World Market for Industrial Batteries (D. Saxman).
15.1.Scope and Analysis Assumption
15.2.Driving Forces Used to Predict World Market Value
15.3.Industrial Energy Storage Systems
15.4.Industrial Battery Configurations
15.5.Driving Forces by Market Sector
15.6.Historic and Predicted World Market Summary for Industrial Batteries