Table of ContentsChapter 1 Introduction What is a furnace? Where are they used? Brief descriptions of a few different furnacesBrief history of furnaces and furnace designChapter 2 The Combustion ProcessCombustion efficiency, basic chemistry of combustion and combustion calculationsThe physics of combustion; The influence of combustion on efficiency; The significance of mixing and fuel type; Definitions of excess air, primary, secondary, tertiary air, etc.Chapter 3 Fuels for furnaces Oil, Nat gas, Syngas COG, BFG, Refinery gas, The effect fuel properties on furnace performance, CV, flammability limitsChapter 4 Furnace Heat TransferConduction, steady state and transient conduction; Convection; Radiation; Flame emissivity; Gas emissivity; Soot emissivity;Flux geometry; Electrical heating, induction, arc and molten saltChapter 5 Furnace burnersBurners - pre-mix, turbulent jet, gas, oil, pulverised coal Importance of fuel air mixing, furnace aerodynamics; Influence of burner design on flame heat release profiles, furnace atmosphereCombustion and furnace scale-up; Combustion noiseChapter 6 Combustion and Heat Transfer ModellingPrinciples of modelling, physical modelling - air and water, mathematical modelling -combustion, heat transfer, aerodynamics, application to burners and furnaces.Chapter 7 Fuel handling systemsThe essential requirements of fuel handing systems for gas, oil, pulverised coalChapter 8 Furnace Control and SafetyTemperature measurement, air and fuel flow measurement, excess air measurement, control of furnace performance, burner management, explosion prevention, explosion mitigationChapter 9 Furnace EfficiencyMass and energy balances, concepts of furnace theoretical efficiency, furnace performance data, high and low grade heat, pinch point, heat losses (in product in flue gas, from walls, through openings) heat recovery from flue gas and from the product. On site measurements, benchmarking, identifying opportunities for improvement. Chapter 10 Emissions and Environmental Impact CO, NOx, SOx, H2S, particulate (from combustion, process), VOCs, dioxins & furans, heavy metal emissions. Chapter 11 Furnace Construction and MaterialsDifferential thermal expansion, refractory choice, high temperature metals, etcChapter 12 The Design ProcessSizing, fuel choice, heat release rate, determining optimum heat transfer profiles, number of burners, choice of heat recovery systems, determining product transport and residence time, choice of furnace atmosphere, selection of control system, designing for safety, etc.