Indoor Farming book cover

Indoor Farming

Plant Factory Systems for Efficient Quality Food Production

As agricultural production is increasingly threatened by unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources, alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food. Indoor Farming: Plant Factory Systems for Efficient Quality Food Production is the only available book to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops. 

The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electronic) lights and include case studies providing insights from both industrial and crop specific programs. With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, policy and regulatory

Paperback, 328 Pages

Published: October 2015

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-801775-3


  • Preface
    Part  I   Overview and concept of closed plant production system (CPPS) (75 pages)
    1. Introduction  (T. Kozai and G. Niu) (3 pages)
    2. Why plant factory?  (T. Kozai) (17 pages)
    2.1 Food-environment-resource (tri-lemma) issues
    2.2 Role of indoor farming in urban and rural areas
    2.3 Supply and value chains of plant factory-grown plants
    3. Plant factory business and R & D in the world - current status and perspectives (10 pages)
    3.1 Japan (T. Kozai)
    3.2 Taiwan (W. Fang)
    3.3 Korea (C. Chun)
    3.4 China (Q. Yang)
    3.5 USA and Canada (C. Kubota)
    3.6 Other countries (Mongolia, The Netherlands, Singapore, Panama, etc.)  
    4. Plant factory as a closed plant production system (T. Kozai and G. Niu) (35 pages)
    4.1 Definition and principal components
    4.2 Resource use efficiency
    4.3 Electricity consumption and cost
    4.4 Improving light energy use efficiency
    4.5 Estimation and visualization of rates of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration
    4.6 Heat and mass (material)  balance, thermal insulation and air infiltration rate
    4.7 Coefficient of Performance (COP) of heat pump
    5. Small plant factory and its network as a service tool  (Takagaki, H. Hara and Kozai) (8 pages)
    6. Combinations with other indoor and outdoor biological systems (A. Nagase)  (2 pages)
           Part II   Basics of physics and physiology - Environments and their effects - (60 pages)
    7. Light and its measurement (G. Niu) (5 pages)
    8. Light source (K. Fujiwara) (6 pages)
    8.1 Light emitting diodes
    8.2 Fluorescent tubes
    8.3 Others
    9. Photosynthesis and respiration (W. Yamori) (9 pages)
    9.1 Photosystem I and II
    9.2 Photosynthetic pigments
    9.3 (Green) light penetration as affected by LAI
    9.4 Photorespiration,  dark respiration and net photosynthesis
    10. Growth, development, transpiration and translocation  (C. Kubota) (14 pages)
    10.1 Shoot and root growth 
    10.2 Development (morphogenesis, photoperiodism, bolting, flower bud differentiation))
    10.3 Transpiration
    10.4 Translocation
    11. Nutrition and nutrient uptake in hydroponic systems (10 pages)
    12. Tip burn and other physiological disorders (6 pages)
    13. Functional and medicinal components  (10 pages)

    Part III Measurement and control (50 pages)

    14. Physical environmental factors and  properties (K. Ohyama)   (23 pages)
    14.1 Psychrometric chart
    14.2 Temperature
    14.3 Humidity (Vapor Pressure deficit)
    14.4 CO2 concentration
    14.5 Air current speed
    14.6 EC, pH and dissolved oxygen
    14.7 Ion concentrations
    14.8 Gas (Air and CO2) and liquid (water/ nutrient solution)  flow rates
    14.9 Heat transmission coefficient
    14.10 Air infiltration rate (No. of air exchanges)
    15. Biological factors (22 pages)
    15.1 Growth (weight, leaf area, shape, etc.)
    15.2 Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, transpiration, water uptake and transpiration
    15.3 Functional and medicinal components
    15.4 Algae growth (Kubota, C)
    15.5 Pest insect
    15.6 Microorganism (Hayakumo, M)
    16. Global and local networks (I. Kurimoto) (5 pages)
    Part IV  System design, construction, cultivation and management (80 pages)
    17. Layout and components of plant factory  (10 pages)
    17.1  Layout (Culture room, nutrient tank, seeding, transplanting and harvesting areas, hot water and/or air shower rooms, packing, cooling and shipping, changing room (locker room) and rest room, space for visitors, etc.)
    17.2 Hydroponic system (NFT system, DFT system, Vertical system)
    17.3 Components (Supports and culture beds, multi-layer with light source, lighting system  (reflectors, shape of cross section, light distribution, etc.),   (K. Fujiwara), air circulation system, collection and recycling system of condensed water at air conditioners, etc.
    18. Construction (5 pages)
    19. Sowing, seedling production, and transplanting  (5 pages)
    20. Leafy greens and other important plants (30 pages)
    20.1 Lettuce
    20.2 Spinach
    20.3 Herbs
    20.4 Medicinal plants (including Ginseng and medicinal Dendrobium) (Niu)
    20.5 Microgreens (G. Niu)
    20.6 Root crops (turnip, radish, carrot,  wasabi, ginseng)
    20.7 Fruit vegetables (strawberry, cherry tomato, blueberry)
    20.8 Others
    21. Automation (seeding, transplanting, spacing, harvesting and transportation, (H. Murase and H. Shimizu) (10 pages)
    22. Management (5 pages)
    23. Economic analysis (5 pages)
    24. Life cycle assessment (LCA) (M. Kikuchi of The University of Tokyo) (10 pages)
    Part V Plant factories in operation
    25. Representative plant factories in operation
    25.1 Spread Inc. in Japan
    25.2 Yasai Corp. in Taiwan
    25.3 Internationally Local Inc. in Japan
    25.4 Mirai Inc. lid.
    25.5 HortAmeria
    25.6 Others
    26. Concluding remarks


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