Plant Factory

An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production

Edited by

  • Toyoki Kozai, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Japan
  • Genhua Niu, Associate Professor, Texas AgriLife Research, El Paso, Texas A&M University, El Paso, TX, USA
  • Michiko Takagaki, Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Japan

As agricultural production is increasingly threatened by unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources, alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food. Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production is the only available book to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops.

The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electronic) lights and include case studies providing insights from both industrial and crop specific programs. With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.


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Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, policy and regulatory


Book information

  • Published: October 2015
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-801775-3

Table of Contents

Preface (Toyoki Kozai, Genhua Niu and Michiko Takagaki)

Section 1: Overview and concept of closed plant production system (CPPS)

1. Introduction Toyoki Kozai and Genhua Niu

2. Role of plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL) in urban areas Toyoki Kozai and Genhua Niu

3. PFAL business and R&D in the world - current status and perspectives Toyoki Kozai, Wei Fang, Changhoo Chun, Qichang Yang, Chieri Kubota and Chungui Lu

4. Plant factory as a resource-efficient closed plant production system Toyoki Kozai and Genhua Niu

5. Micro- and mini-PFALs for improving quality of life in urban areas Michiko Takagaki, Hiromichi Hara and Toyoki Kozai

6. Rooftop plant production systems in urban areas Nadia Christina Sabeh

Section 2: Basics of physics and physiology - Environments and their effects

7. Light Genhua Niu and Kazuhiro Fujiwara

8. Physical environmental factors and their properties Genhua Niu, Toyoki Kozai and Nadia Christina Sabeh

9. Photosynthesis and respiration Wataru Yamori

10. Growth, development, transpiration and translocation as affected by abiotic environmental factors Chieri Kubota

11. Nutrition and nutrient uptake in hydroponic systems Satoru Tsukagoshi and Y. Shinohara

12. Tip burn Toru Maruo and Masahumi Johkan

13. Functional components in leafy vegetables Keiko Kaneko Ohashi

14. Medicinal components SMA Zobayed

15. Production of pharmaceuticals in a specially designed plant factory Eiji Goto

Section 3: System design, construction, cultivation and management

16. Plant production process, floor plan and layout of PFAL Toyoki Kozai

17. Hydroponic system Jung Eek Son and Toyoki Kozai

18. Seeding, seedling production and transplanting Osamu Nunomura

19. Transplant production Toyoki Kozai, Toshio Shibuya, Dongxian He, SMA Zobayed and Changhoo Chun

20. Photoautotrophic micropropagation Quynh Thi Nguyen

21. Biological factor management Chieri Kubota, Toyoki Kozai and Miho Takashima

22. Design and management of PFAL Toyoki Kozai

23. Automated technology in plant factories with artificial lighting Hiroshi Shimizu

24. Life cycle assessment Yasunori Kikuchi

25. Education, training, intensive business forums on plant factories Toshitaka Yamaguchi and Mami Yoshida

Section 4: PFALs in operation and its perspectives

26. Selected commercial PFALs in Japan and Taiwan Shinji Inada, Wei Fang, S. Shimamura, K. Kitagawa, Yasuhito Sasaki, Toyoki Kozai, Kozo Hagiya and Kazuhiko Yamaguchi

27. Challenges for the next-generation PFAL Toyoki Kozai and Genhua Niu

28. Conclusions: resource-saving and resource-consuming characteristics of PFALs Toyoki Kozai and Genhua Niu