Incompressible Flow Turbomachines book cover

Incompressible Flow Turbomachines

Design, Selection, Applications, and Theory

The primary purpose of this book is to provide an integrated overview of incompressible flow turbomachines and their design, in this case pumps and turbines. Theory and empirical knowledge of turbomachines are brought together in detail to form a framework for a basic understanding of this complex subject. A step-by-step approach is used by means of solved problems at the end of each chapter to accomplish this.

Audience
Industrial engineers, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, technicians and designers working with hydraulic turbomachines; Final year undergraduate students and graduate students in advanced level fluid mechanics, thermodynamics or turbomachinery courses

Hardbound, 352 Pages

Published: June 2004

Imprint: Butterworth Heinemann

ISBN: 978-0-7506-7603-8

Contents

  • Chapter 1 Historical Background and Present State of Development1.1 Greek and Roman machines 1.2 The Middle Ages1.3 The Renaissance 1.4 Post Renaissance 1.5 19th Century to the present 1.6 General classification of rotodynamic turbines and pumps1.7 Theoretical limitations1.8 ReferencesChapter 2 Theory of Turbomachines 2.1 Equations governing the behavior of turbomachines 2.2 Continuity equation 2.3 Linear momentum theorem2.4 Angular momentum equation2.5 Euler Turbine Equation2.6 Bernoulli equation2.7 The energy equation2.8 Similarity2.9 Dimensional analysis2.10 Restrictions on similarity applications 2.11 Dimensionless groups and specific speed 2.12 Scaling discrepancies 2.13 Graphical correlations for specific speed 2.14 General geometry of rotational, radial and axial flows 2.15 Circulation, free vortex flow and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem2.16 Forces acting on an axial flow turbine and axial flow pump blade2.17 Stream function and streamlines2.18 Velocity potential 2.19 Superposition of streamlines 2.20 Axisymetric flows and Stokes' stream function 2.21 Meridional streamlines and velocities 2.22 Effects of friction on flows through turbomachines2.23 Solved problemsChapter 3 Turbines3.1 Classification of turbines3.2 General operating conditions 3.3 Impulse turbines - Pelton wheels 3.3.1 Speed factor, Ö3.3.2 Specific speed of Pelton wheels3.3.3 Nozzles 3.3.4 Jet force on runner3.3.5 Arrangement of nozzles and size of jets3.3.6 Jet velocity and diameter3.3.7 Runner3.3.8 Turgo wheels3.4 Radial flow turbines - Francis turbines3.4.1 Choice of turbine speed 3.4.2 Effect of gate opening3.5 Axial flow turbines - propeller and Kaplan turbines3.5.1 Combinator 3.5.2 Effects of rotor and guide vane angle3.5.3 Selection of speed and runner dimensions3.6 Other turbines3.61 Pump turbines3.6.2 Deriaz turbine3.6.3 Bulb turbine3.6.4 Banki turbine3.6.5 Michell turbine 3.7 Control and governing of turbines3.7.1 Function of a governor3.7.2 Equations for load changes 3.7.3 Governors3.7.4 Relief valves3.8 Solved problems3.9 References Chapter 4 Pumps 4.1 Introduction4.1.1 Theoretical characteristics of centrifugal pumps4.2 Classification of rotary pumps4.3 Radial flow pumps4.3.1 Geometry4.3.2 Power4.3.3 Theoretical head4.3.4 Energy Losses4.3.5 Head losses4.3.6 Leakage losses4.3.7 Disk friction loss4.3.8 Mechanical losses4.3.9 Specific speed and impeller geometry4.3.10 Modeling of flow through an impeller4.3.11 Axi-symmetric flow4.3.12 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)4.3.13 Slip factors 4.3.14 Effect of blade number, outlet blade angle and circulation in blade passages4.3.15 Choice of blade number and blade overlap4.3.16 Energy recovery 4.3.17 Examples of radial flow pumps4.3.18 Installation of a typical centrifugal pump4.3.19 Special purpose radial flow pumps4.4 Mixed flow pumps - diagonal impeller pumps4.5 Axial and semi-axial pumps 4.5.1 Unbounded axial impellers or propellers4.6 Pump characteristics of centrifugal pumps4.6.1 single centrifugal pumps - radial and mixed flow impellers 4.6.2 Effect of fluid properties4.7 Series and parallel connections4.7.1 Multi-stage centrifugal pumps4.8 Displacement rotary pumps4.8.1 Vane pumps4.8.2 Peristaltic pump4.8.3 Lobe pumps4.8.4 RVP pump4.8.5 Water ring pump4.9 Flow control4.9.1 Throttling of the flow at inlet or outlet4.9.2 Pump disconnection4.9.3 Regulated flow bypass 4.9.4 Speed regulation4.9.5 Impeller blade adjustment4.9.6 Inlet guide vane adjustment 4.9.7 Air locking4.10 Automatic priming4.11 Fluid couplings4.12 Solved problems 4.13 ReferencesChapter 5 Some aspects of design5.1 General remarks 5.2 Application to flow 5.2.1 Axial flow design5.3 Axial and radial thrusts in pumps and turbines5.3.1 Axial5.3.2 Closed single-entry centrifugal impellers 5.3.3 Multi-stage balancing of single-entry stages5.3.4 Radial5.4 Critical speeds5.4.1 Unbalanced simple rotor 5.4.2 Application of the Rayleigh equations5.4.3 Use of singularity functions5.4.4 Solution by numerical integration 5.4.5 Torsional critical speed5.5 Seals5.6 Glands5.7 Solved problems 5.8 ReferencesChapter 6 Blades of Single and Double Curvature 6.1 General remarks on design of runners and impellers6.2 Single curvature design 6.2.1 Meridional velocities, inlet diameter and inlet angle.6.2.2 Tip impeller velocity, u2 and outlet diameter d2. 6.2.4 Dimension calculations, continuity adjustments 6.3 Example of design - blade of single curvature6.4.1 Impeller blades with double curvature6.5 Design of double curvature blades by conformal mapping 6.6 References Chapter 7Inlet and Outlet Elements 7.1 Inlet elements of turbines7.1.1 Surge tanks7.1.2 Basic equations for differential surge tanks7.1.3 Instability of the surge tank7.2 Inlet elements of pumps7.2.1 Volute suction chambers7.3 Outlet elements of turbines7.3.1 Draft tubes 7.4 Outlet elements of pumps7.4.1 Volute design 7.4.2 Velocity distributions in different volute cross-sections7.4.3 Example design of a constant velocity volute7.5 Solved problems 7.6 References Chapter 8Head losses in components of turbine and pump systems8.1 Pipes8.1.1 Friction factor8.1.2 Hydraulic diameter8.2 Losses through other elements8.2.1 Discharge, velocity and contraction coefficients 8.2.2 Nozzle loss8.2.3 Fittings, valves and joints8.2.4 Expansions and contractions 8.2.5 Losses in pipe branches8.3 Total frictional loss in a pipe system8.4 Solved problems8.5 ReferenceChapter 9 Cavitation9.1 Causes of cavitation and parts affected 9.1.1 Methods of detecting cavitation 9.2 Cavitation in turbines9.2.1 Thoma number, s9.3 Cavitation in pumps9.3.1 Cavitation and specific speed9.4 Determination of limits of cavitation 9.5 Limitations of similarity laws. 9.6 Methods of prevention of cavitation9.7 Conclusions about cavitation 9.8 ReferencesChapter 10 Water hammer10.1 Introduction10.2 Equations describing wave generation and propagation10.2.1 Valve opening or closure position as a function of time10.3 Graphical solution10.4 Other wave reflections10.4.1 Reflection at the closed end of a pipe10.4.2 Effect of change of area cross-section10.4.3 Junctions and branches10.5 Solved problems 10.6 ReferencesChapter 11 Corrosion11.1 Introduction11.2 Thermodynamics of the corrosion process11.2.1 Corrosion of iron and steel11.2.2 Effect of pH11.2.3 Action of anaerobic bacteria11.2.4 Pitting and crevice corrosion11.3 Corrosion resistance of steel alloys11.4 Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue 11.5 Galvanic or bimetallic corrosion11.6 Cathodic protection11.6.1 Sacrificial anodes11.6.2 Protection and overprotection 11.7 ReferencesAppendicesA1 - Equations A2 - Table - Specific gravity and viscosity of water at atmospheric pressureA3 - Vapor pressure chart for various liquidsA4 - Density of various liquidsA5 - Mathematical and Physical Constants A6 - Conversion factors A7 - Beam formulas and figuresA8 - Charts for flows through fittingsA9 - Friction factor - Reynolds number chart (Moody diagram) A10 - Table - Values of roughness, e for various materials

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