Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains


  • Donald Ortner, Department of Anthropology; National Museum of Natural History; Smithsonian Institution
  • Donald Ortner, Department of Anthropology; National Museum of Natural History; Smithsonian Institution

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations.
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Bioanthropologists, paleopathologists, physical anthropologists, and any professional or researcher working in anthropology and archeology.


Book information

  • Published: December 2002
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-528628-2


"This book provides a detailed and integrated description of the paleopathology of the human skeleton...I strongly recommend this book also for basic scientists and clinicians interested in bone diseases since the study of skeletal paleopathology undoubtedly will broaden our understanding of bone biology." -Peter Peitschmann for WIENER MEDIZINISCHE WOCHENSCHRIFT "This is a comprehensive book that is rare in its field. Highly recommended." -E-STREAMS (November 2003)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction History of the First Edition History of the Second Edition Objectives of the Second Edition Format of the Book Acknowledgments for the First Edition Acknowledgments for the Second Edition Abbreviations A Brief History of Paleopathology Research in Paleopathology at the Smithsonian Institution2. The Biology of Skeletal Tissues Cellular Biology of Bone and Cartilage Bone Cells Cartilage Cells Types of Cartilage Growth and Development of Bone Modeling of Skeletal Tissue Types of Bone Tissue Remodeling of Skeletal Tissue Microscopic Bone Remodeling Activation Resorption Reversal Formation Quiescence Osteon Remodeling Bone Biochemistry and Mineral Homeostasis Growth and Development of the Spine Growth and Development of Teeth Vascular Conditions That Affect Bone Formation and Destruction3. Background Data in Paleopathology Data Basic to Paleopathological Analysis Age Determination Ethnic Determination Sex Determination Stature Determination Demographic Analysis Archeological Excavation and Documentation4. Methods Used in the Analysis of Skeletal Lesions Gross Study of Skeletal Lesions Distribution of Lesions within the Skeleton Types of Bone Abnormalities Types of Abnormalities Associated with Joints Radiological Study of Skeletal Lesions Microscopic Study of Skeletal Lesions5. Recent Advances in Bone, Dentin, and Enamel Biochemistry Introduction Mineralized Tissue Cell Biology The Mineral of Bone, Dentin, and Enamel Paleopathological Considerations The Collagens of Bones and Teeth Paleopathological Considerations The Noncollagenous Proteins of Bones and Teeth Paleopathological Considerations Growth, Turnover, and Aging Conclusions6. Light Microscopic Analysis in Skeletal Paleopathology The Need for Microscopic Analysis Materials and Methods Postmortem Changes General Comments on Proliferative Reactions Periosteal Reactions on Long Bones Polsters Grenzstreifen Meningeal Reactions Fracture of Skull Vault and Concomitant Phenomena Primary Inflammatory Processes of the Pericranium and Skull Vault Porotic Hyperostosis Pseudopathology Conclusions and Summary 7. Theoretical Issues in Paleopathology Evolutionary Dynamics in The Human Response to Disease Scientific Nature of Paleopathology Diagnostic Issues in Paleopathology Inferences about the Health Status of a Population Based on Evidence of Skeletal Disease Limitations of Skeletal Evidence of Disease Female Immune Reactivity and Maternal Mortality Gender As a Factor in Malnutrition and Morbidity Hypothetical Models of Male and Female Immune Reactivity Male/Female Ratios in Infectious Disease Implications for Interpreting Evidence of Disease in Archeological Human Skeletons Implications for Research in Paleopathology Conclusions8. Trauma Introduction Fracture Pathology Paleopathology Dislocation Pathology Paleopathology Deformation Pathology Paleopathology Scalping Pathology Paleopathology Mutilation Trephination History Paleopathology Traumatic Problems Arising from Pregnancy Pathology Paleopathology Sincipital-T Mutilation Summary and Conclusions9. Infectious Diseases: Introduction, Biology, Osteomyelitis, Periostitis, Brucellosis, Glanders, and Septic Arthritis Introduction Humoral Versus Cellular Responses to Infectious Agents Vascular Changes in Response to Infectious Agents The Biology of Infection Osteomyelitis Pathology Hematogenous Osteomyelitis Changes in Individual Bones Paleopathology The Skull Postcranial Osteomyelitis Periostitis Pathology Paleopathology Brucellosis Introduction Pathology Paleopathology Glanders Pathology Septic Arthritis Pathology Paleopathology 10. Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis and Leprosy Tuberculosis Pathology Paleopathology Leprosy Pathology Paleopathology11. Infectious Diseases: Treponematosis and Other Bacterial Infectious Diseases Treponematosis Pathology Paleopathology Leishmaniasis Pathology Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis Pathology Mycetoma (Maduromycosis) Pathology12. Infectious Diseases: Mycotic, Viral, and Multicelled Parasitic Diseases of the Human Skeleton Introduction Mycosis Pathology Paleopathology Viral Infections Introduction Smallpox (Variola) Rubella Multicelled Parasitic Infections Echinococcosis Introduction Pathology Paleopathology Sarcoidosis Introduction Pathology13. Circulatory Disturbances Introduction Blood Supply of Bones Osteonecrosis Introduction Pathology Necrosis of the Femoral Head Pathology Paleopathology Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease and Slipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis Pathology Paleopathology Other Disorders Associated with Osteonecrosis Kehler's Diseases of the Tarsal Navicular Bone Freiberg's Disease of a Metatarsal Head Kienbeck's Disease of the Carpal Lunate Bone Other Diseases Associated with Trauma and Vascular Deficiency Osteochondritis Dissecans Osgood-Schlatter Disease of the Tibial Tubercle Hypertrophic (Pulmonary) Osteoarthropathy Aneurysmal Erosion14. Reticuloendothelial and Hematopoietic Disorders Introduction Reticuloendothelial Diseases Lipid Storage Diseases Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X) Hematopoietic Diseases Anemias Leukemia Myeloma 15. MetabOlic Disorders Introduction Vitamin C Deficiency Pathology Paleopathology Rickets and Osteomalacia Introduction Pathology Paleopathology Hypophosphatasia Pathology Starvation Pathology Fluorosis Pathology Paleopathology Osteopenia Introduction Pathology Paleopathology Localized Hyperostosis Pathology Generalized Hyperostosis with Pachydermia Pathology Paleopathology16. Endocrine Disturbances Introduction Pituitary Disturbances Pathology Paleopathology Other Endocrine Disturbances Introduction Pathology Paleopathology 17. Miscellaneous Bone Diseases Introduction Paget's Disease Pathology Paleopathology Fibrous Dysplasia Pathology Paleopathology Neurofibromatosis Pathology Paleopathology Myositis Ossificans Progressiva Pathology18. Congenital and Neuromechanical Abnormalities of the Skeleton Introduction Skull Pathology Paleopathology Spine Pathology Paleopathology Ribs and Sternum Pathology and Paleopathology Pelvis Pathology Paleopathology Extremities Pathology Paleopathology19. Skeletal Dysplasias and Related Diseases Introduction Defects in Endochondral Bone Formation Achondroplasia Mucopolysaccharidosis Defects in Intramembranous Bone Formation Osteogenesis Imperfecta Cleidocranial Dysostosis Osteopetrosis Pyknodysostosis Metaphyseal Dysplasia (Pyle's Disease) Diaphyseal Sclerosis (Camurati-Engelmann's Disease) Melorheostosis (Left's Disease) Osteopoikilosis Osteopathia Striata20. Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of Bone Introduction Primary Benign Tumors Pathology Paleopathology Primary Malignant Bone Tumors Pathology Paleopathology Metastatic Tumors Pathology Paleopathology21. Osteoarthritis and Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Introduction Osteoarthritis Pathology Paleopathology Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (Dish) Pathology Paleopathology22. Erosive Arthropathies, Enthesopathies, and Miscellaneous Pathological Conditions of Joints Introduction Rheumatoid Arthritis Pathology Paleopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Chronic Arthritis Spondyloarthropathy General Pathology Ankylosing Spondylitis (Marie-Strtimpell's Disease) Psoriatic Arthritis Spondyloarthropathies Associated with Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract Other Erosive Arthropathies Gout Ochronosis (Alkaptonuria) Neuropathic Arthropathy (Charcot's Joint)23. Dental Disease and Miscellaneous Pathol gical Conditions of Jaws Introduction Dental Disease Dental Caries Gingivitis and Periodontitis Disturbances in Dental Development Dental Trauma Dental Attrition Dental Discoloration Miscellaneous Pathological Conditions of Jaws PathologyLiterature CitedIndex