ICRP Publication 59: The Biological Basis for Dose Limitation in the Skin
Annals of the ICRP Volume 22/2By
- . ICRP
Despite the increase in data and the understanding of both deterministic effects and cancer induction in the skin in recent years, many questions that are important for risk estimation remain. This report, adopted by the ICRP in November 1991, is the work of a Task Group set up to consider the biological basis for dose limitation in the skin. The Task Group reviewed available dose-effect data for cancer induction and deterministic effects in the skin to estimate for these effects; it reviewed evidence concerning which cells are at risk, to determine at what depth dose measurements should be made, and re-examined dosimetry considerations and weighting factors for skin, with reference to the effects of 'hot particles' and ultraviolet radiation. The information collated in this report was used by the Commission to set dose limits and the weighting factor for skin in the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP.
For regulatory and advisory agencies at regional, national and international levels, management bodies with responsibilities for radiological protection; professional staff used as advisors; and individuals such as radiologists who have to make decisions about the use of ionizing radiation.
International Commission on Radiological Protection
Published: April 1992
Introduction. The Structure of the Skin.
General. The epidermis. The dermis. The skin appendages.
Radiation Effects on the Skin.
Terminology used to identify the responses of skin to radiation. Late erythema, dermal ischaemia and necrosis. Radiation-induced skin reactions specific to radiological protection. Dose-effect relationships and threshold doses. Experimental studies on the effects of irradiation with 'hot particles'.
Experimental Radiation Carcinogenesis.
Types of radiation-induced tumours in experimental animals. Mechanisms of radiation-induced skin cancer.
Radiation-Induced Skin Cancer in Humans.
Variations in susceptibility to non-melanotic skin cancer. Immunosuppression and skin cancer. Studies of skin cancer in irradiated populations. Interaction of ionising and UV radiation in skin cancer induction.
Dose Limits and the Factors Influencing Risk Estimates.
Stochastic effects. Deterministic effects. General dosimetric considerations related to skin dose limitation.
Glossary. Acknowledgements. References.