Hypercrosslinked Polymeric Networks and Adsorbing Materials book cover

Hypercrosslinked Polymeric Networks and Adsorbing Materials

Synthesis, Properties, Structure, and Applications

Hypercrosslinked network polymers present a new class of polymeric materials with very wide application possibilities, including adsorption technology, ion exchange, HPLC, analytical chemistry, nanotechnology (nanocomposites), medical polymers

Audience

Chemistry and materials science researchers working on properties of polymeric materials, and new approaches to solving actual problems in separation science and new approaches to green chemistry; chemical engineers and polymer technologists; graduate and PhD students.

 

Hardbound, 672 Pages

Published: October 2010

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53700-3

Contents

  • Hypercrosslinked Polymeric Networks and Separation Media

    INTRODUCTION

    PART I.  KNOWN TYPES OF POLYSTYRENE NETWORKS

    1. GEL-TYPE (HOMOGENEOUS) POLYSTYRENE NETWORKS     
    1.1. Gel-type styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers by free radical copolymerization   
    1.1.1. Monomer reactivity ratio in crosslinking copolymerization
    1.1.2. Monomer reactivity ratios of styrene and divinylbenzene isomers
    1.2. Gel-type styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers by anionic copolymerization   
    1.2.1. Synthesis of model “ideal” styrene-divinylbenzene networks by anionic block-copolymerization
    1.2.2. Verification of swelling theory
    1.2.3. Characterization of model networks by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique
    1.2.4. Presumptive mechanism of swelling of model networks
    1.2.5. Interpenetration of polymeric coils in model networks
    1.2.6. Study of model networks by the other methods      
    1.3. Gel-type ion exchange resins        

    2. INTERPENETRATING POLYSTYRENE NETWORKS      
    2.1. Interpenetrating styrene-divinylbenzene networks      
    2.2. Interpenetrating ion exchange resins       

    3. MACROPOROUS (HETEROGENEOUS) POLYSTYRENE NETWORKS     
    3.1. Macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers       
    3.1.1. Determination of the porous structure parameters
    3.1.2. Phase separation during the crosslinking copolymerization in the presence of diluents
    3.1.3. Formation of macroporous copolymers in the presence of precipitating diluents
    3.1.3.1. Experimental findings
    3.1.3.2. Formation of macroporous texture in the presence of precipitating diluents
    3.1.4. Formation of macroporous copolymers in the presence of solvating diluents
    3.1.5. Formation of macroporous copolymers in the presence of linear polystyrene
    3.2. Macroporous ion exchange resins       

    4. GIGAPOROUS POLYMERIC SEPARATING MEDIA
    4.1. Formation of gigaporous texture in the presence of solid porogens    
    4.2. Formation of gigaporous texture by polymerization of reversed emulsions   
    4.3. Porous polymeric monolith        
    4.3.1. In situ preparation of porous continuous polymeric beds
    4.3.2. Polymeric monoliths in chromatography and electrochromatography

    5. ISOPOROUS ANION EXCHANGE RESINS

    References to PART I


    PART II.  HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE NETWORKS

    6. PREPARATION OF MACRONET ISOPOROUS AND HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE NETWORKS
    6.1. Basic principles of formation of hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks
    6.2. Crosslinking agents and chemistry of post-crosslinking
    6.3. New terms for polymeric networks
    6.4. Synthesis of macronet isoporous and hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks
    6.4.1. Choice of solvents and catalysts
    6.4.2. Synthesis conditions of macronet isoporous and hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks
    6.4.3. FTIR spectra of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes.
    6.4.4. Some chemical groups in the structure of hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    6.4.5. Synthesis of hypercrosslinked networks in the presence of aqueous solutions of Friedel-Crafts catalysts

    7. PROPERTIES OF HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE
    7.1. Factors determining the swelling behavior of hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks
    7.1.1. The influence of dilution of the initial system
    7.1.2. The role of the initial copolymer network
    7.1.3. Influence of the uniformity of crosslink distribution
    7.1.4. The role of inner stresses of the hypercrosslinked network and the structure of crosslinking bridges
    7.1.5. The role of the reaction rate of polystyrene with crosslinking agents
    7.1.6. The effect of the reaction medium
    7.1.7. The influence of polystyrene molecular weight
    7.2. Kinetics of swelling of hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    7.3. Some remarks concerning the swelling ability of three-dimensional polymers
    7.4. Swelling and deformation of hypercrosslinked networks
    7.4.1. Physical background of photoelasticity phenomenon
    7.4.2. Visualization of inner stresses in networks on swelling
    7.5. Porosity of hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    7.5.1. Apparent density of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes
    7.5.2. Apparent inner surface area of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes
    7.5.3. Pore volume of hypercrosslinked polymers
    7.5.4. Pore size and pore size distribution of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes
    Low temperature adsorption of nitrogen 
    Mercury intrusion 
    Inversed size exclusion chromatography
    Annihilation of positronium
    Miscellaneous techniques
    7.6. Morphology of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes
    7.6.1. Investigation of polymer texture by electron microscopy
    7.6.2. Investigation of hypercrosslinked polystyrenes by small angle X-ray scattering  
    7.7. Biporous hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks
    7.8. Thermomechanical properties of hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    7.8.1. Thermomechanical tests and the physical state of hypercrosslinked networks
    7.8.2. Thermodilatometric analysis of hypercrosslinked polymers
    7.8.3. Thermal stability of hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    7.9. Deswelling of porous network polymers

    8. SOLUBLE INTRAMOLECULARLY HYPERCROSSLINKED NANOSPONGES
    8.1. Intramolecular crosslinking of polystyrene coils
    8.2. Properties of polystyrene nanosponges
    8.3. Self-assembling of nanosponges to regular clusters

    9. HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERS – A NOVEL CLASS OF POLYMERIC MATERIALS
    9.1. Distinguishing structural features of hypercrosslinked polystyrene networks
    9.2. Unusual structure-property relations for hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    9.3. Other types of hypercrosslinked networks
    9.3.1. Macroporous hypercrosslinked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers and related networks
    9.3.2. Hypercrosslinked polysulfone
    9.3.3. Hypercrosslinked polyarylates
    9.3.4. Hypercrosslinked polyxylylene
    9.3.5. Hypercrosslinked polyanilines
    9.3.6. Hypercrosslinked polyamide and polyimide networks
    9.3.7. Hydrophilic hypercrosslinked pyridine-containing polymers
    9.3.8. Other types of hypercrosslinked organic polymers
    9.3.9. Hypercrosslinked polysilsesquioxane networks
    9.3.10. Metal-organic frameworks
    9.4. Commercially available hypercrosslinked polystyrene resins

    References to PART II


    PART III.  APPLICATION OF HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE ADSORBING MATERIALS

    10. SORPTION OF GASES AND ORGANIC VAPORS
    10.1. Polymeric adsorbents versus activated carbons
    10.2. Analysis of adsorption isotherms on hypercrosslinked polystyrenes
    10.3. Sorption of organic vapors under static conditions
    10.4. Kinetics of sorption of hydrocarbon vapors
    10.5. Sorption of hydrocarbon vapors under dynamic conditions
    10.6. Desorption of hydrocarbons
    10.7. Passivity of hypercrosslinked sorbents
    10.8. Evaluation of adsorption activity of hypercrosslinked sorbents by means of gas chromatography

    11.  SORPTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
    11.1. Sorption of organic synthetic dyes
    11.2. Sorption of tributyl ester of phosphoric acid
    11.3. Sorption of n-valeric acid
    11.4. Clarification of colored fermentation liquids
    11.5. Sorption of lipids
    11.6. Sorption of gasoline
    11.7. Sorption of phenols
    11.8. Removal of chloroform from industrial waste water
    11.9. Sorption of pesticides
    11.10. Extraction of caffeine from coffee beans
    11.11. Decolorizing aqueous sugar syrups
    11.12. Removal of bitterness from citrus juice
    11.13. Sorption of cephalosporin C
    11.14. Sorption of miscellaneous organic compounds
    11.15. Hypercrosslinked sorbents versus Amberlite XAD-4
    11.16. Sorption of inorganic cations

    12. NANOPOROUS ADSORBING MATERIALS IN SIZE-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MINERAL ELECTROLYTES
    12.1. Development of the chromatographic separations of mineral electrolytes under conditions excluding ion exchange. Related work by others
    12.2. Preparative separation of electrolytes via ion size exclusion (ISE) on neutral nanoporous materials
    12.3. Remarkable features of size-exclusion chromatography
    12.4. Size of hydrated ions
    12.5. Selectivity of separation in ion size exclusion
    12.6. Phase distribution of ions between aqueous solutions and nanoporous materials
    12.7. Conception of “ideal separation process”
    12.8. Size-exclusion chromatography – a general approach to separation of electrolytes
    12.8.1. Use of other microporous column packings
    12.8.2. Productivity of ion size exclusion process
    12.8.3. Ion size exclusion – green technology
    12.9. Application niche for size-exclusion chromatography of electrolytes
    12.10. Chromatographic resolution of a salt into its parent acid and base constituents

    13. HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE AS COLUMN PACKING MATERAL IN HPLC
    13.1. Macroporous polystyrene versus silica-based HPLC packings
    13.2. Hypercrosslinked polystyrene as restricted access adsorption material
    13.3. Ion exchanging and metal complexing ability of hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    13.4. --Interaction selectivity in HPLC on hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    13.4.1. Reversed phase chromatography
    13.4.2. Quasi-normal phase chromatography
    13.4.3. Mixed-mode chromatography

    14. SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS WITH HYPERCROSSLINKED SORBENTS
    14.1 Why pre-concentration is needed?
    14.2. Basic principle of solid-phase extraction
    14.3. SPE pre-concentration of phenolic compounds
    14.4. SPE trace enrichment of pesticides
    14.5. SPE trace enrichment of pharmaceuticals
    14.6. SPE enrichment of organic compounds from biological liquids
    14.7. SPE in food analysis
    14.8. SPE enrichment of organic acids
    14.9. SPE enrichment of miscellaneous compounds
    14.10. Hypercrosslinked polystyrene sorbents versus Oasis HLB
    14.11. --Interactions and SPE from non-aqueous media
    14.12. Pre-concentration of volatile organic compounds in air

    15. HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE AS HEMOSORBENTS
    15.1. Hemoperfusion vs hemodialysis in blood purification
    15.2. Hypercrosslinked polymers for the removal of b2-microglobulin
    15.3. Biocompatibility of hypercrosslinked polystyrene: in vitro and in vivo studies
    15.4. Clinical studies
    15.5. Further perspectives for hemoperfusion on hypercrosslinked sorbents

    16. HYPERCROSSLINKED ION EXCHANGE RESINS
    16.1. Ion exchange capacity and swelling behavior of hypercrosslinked strong acidic ion exchange resins
    16.2. Kinetics of ion exchange on hypercrosslinked resins
    16.3. Selectivity of ion exchange on hypercrosslinked strong acidic cation exchange resins
    16.4. Porosity of dry hypercrosslinked strong acidic ion exchange resins
    16.5. Anion exchange resins
    16.6. Properties of commercial hypercrosslinked ion exchange resins

    17. OTHER APPLICATIONS OF HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYSTYRENE
    17.1. Extraction of rhenium by impregnated hypercrosslinked sorbents
    17.2. Heterogeneous membranes filled with hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    17.3. Nanocomposite catalysts of organic reactions
    17.4. Storage of hydrogen and methane on hypercrosslinked polystyrene
    17.5. Carbonaceous sorbents based on hypercrosslinked polystyrene

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