Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes book cover

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles.

This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information.

Audience
Chemical Engineers, professionals in research and development in chemical industries, environmental and energy-related industries; process engineers, physical and geochemists, physicists in applied research and for students in these areas.

Hardbound, 604 pages

Published: April 2014

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-59413-6

Contents

  • Foreword

    1. Introduction

    2. Properties of pure water
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2 Structure of H2O
    2.3 Phase diagram
    2.4 Thermodynamic properties
    2.5 Transport properties
    2.6 Electrical properties
    2.7 Miscellaneous properties of water
    References

    3. Properties of Mixtures with water
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2 Properties of mixtures
    3.3 Phase behavior of mixtures with water
    3.4 Water and non-electrolytes
    3.5 Water and electrolytes
    3.6 Water and metal oxides
    3.7 Water and non-volatile electrolytes (salts)
    References

    4. Heat transfer
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Heat transfer to pure water
    4.3 Heat transfer in the critical and supercritical region (region IV)
    4.4 Condensation
    4.5 Heat transfer for flow through beds of particles
    4.6 Heat transfer coefficients in heat exchangers
    References

    5 Reactions in hydrothermal and supercritical water
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics
    5.3 Specific reactions in supercritical water as reaction atmosphere

    6 Extraction processes
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Fundamentals of the extraction process
    6.3 Soil cleaning
    6.4 Various extractions from mineral substrates
    6.5 Separation of organic compounds from bone material
    6.6 Extraction of natural substances
    References

    7 Processing of fuel materials with hydrothermal and supercritical water
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Processing of coal with water
    7.3 Oil shale conversion with hydrothermal and supercritical water
    7.4 Oil sands processing with hydrothermal and supercritical water
    References

    8 Processing of Biomass with hydrothermal and supercritical water
    8.1 Introduction:
    8.2 Processing of plant based monomers with high temperature and supercritical water
    8.3 Processing of natural polymers with high temperature and supercritical water
    8.4 Processing of mixtures of natural compounds of biomass
    8.5 Biomass liquefaction
    8.6 Biomass gasification
    References

    9 Synthetic polymers recycling
    9.1 Condensation polymers
    9.2 Polyethylene
    9.3. Addition polymerization polymers
    9.4 Various polymers
    References

    10 Oxidation in high temperature and supercritical water
    10.1 General aspects of oxidation in water
    10.2 Wet air oxidation WAO
    10.3 Supercritical water oxidation SCWO
    10.4 Hydrothermal flames
    References

    11 Hydrothermal processes
    11.1 Introduction: What is hydrothermal synthesis?
    11.2 Principle of hydrothermal synthesis
    11.3 Crystal growth
    11.4 Synthesis of new phases and compounds
    11.5 Hydrothermal preparation of materials, Production of fine particles, impregnation, coatings
    References

    12 Corrosion in high temperature and supercritical water
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Types of corrosion in hydrothermal and supercritical water
    12.3 Solution parameters influencing corrosion
    12.4 Measures against corrosion
    12.5 Summary
    References

    13 Process components and processes
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Reactors
    13.3 Experimental processes
    13.4 Production processes
    References

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