Hydrological Drought, 48
Processes and Estimation Methods for Streamflow and Groundwater
- Lena M. Tallaksen, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Norway
- Henny A.J. van Lanen, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
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Hydrological drought is a textbook for university students, practising hydrologists and researchers. The main scope of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive review of processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater drought. It includes a qualitative conceptual understanding of drought features and processes, a detailed presentation of estimation methods and tools, practical examples and key aspects of operational practice.The methods are demonstrated using sample data sets and tools that are provided on the accompanying CD. The drought phenomenon and its diversity across the world are illustrated using a global set of daily streamflow series, whereas regional and local aspects of drought are studied using a combination of hydrological time series and catchment information. The book concludes with human impacts, ecological issues and examples of procedures for designing and operating water resources schemes. The majority of the examples are taken from regions where the rivers run most of the year. The material presented ranges from well established knowledge and analysing methods to recent developments in drought research. Its nature varies accordingly, from a more traditional textbook with its clear overview to that of a research paper, which introduces new approaches and methodologies for drought analysis.
Also available in paperback, ISBN 0-444-51767-7.
- Published: December 2004
- Imprint: ELSEVIER
- ISBN: 978-0-444-51688-6
Table of ContentsPreface.Acknowledgements.Contributors.Brief Contents.Contents.List of Worked Examples, Self-guided Tours and Case Studies.Contents CD.Abbreviations, Symbols and Catchment Descriptors.Part I: Drought as a Natural Hazard.1. Introduction.1.1 Scope.1.2 Hydrological drought.1.3 The drought hazard.1.4 International low flow and drought studies.1.5 Outline.2. Hydroclimatology.2.1 Introduction.2.2 Drought in different climates.2.3 Space-time variability.2.4 Recent drought events.2.5 Drought monitoring and forecasting.2.6 Impact of climate change.2.7 Summary.3. Flow Generating Processes.3.1 Introduction.3.2 Flow systems in different types of catchments and drought-related processes.3.3 Unsaturated zone - Actual evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge.3.4 Saturated zone - Groundwater discharge and water tables.3.5 Surface water.3.6 Summary.Part II: Estimation Methods.4. Hydrological Data.4.1 Introduction.4.2 Types of data.4.3 Hydrological time series data.4.4 Thematic data at different spatial scales.4.5 Example data.4.6 Summary.5. Hydrological Drought Characteristics.5.1 Introduction.5.2 Drought terminology.5.3 Low flow characteristics.5.4 Deficit characteristics.5.5 Interrelationships between indices.5.6 Groundwater drought characteristics.5.7 Complex indices.5.8 Summary.6. Frequency Analysis.6.1 Introduction.6.2 Basic probability concepts.6.3 Data for extreme value analysis.6.4 Probability distributions.6.5 Estimation methods.6.6 At-site frequency analysis.6.7 Regional frequency analysis.6.8 Severity-area-frequency curves.6.9 Summary.7. Time Series Modelling.7.1 Introduction.7.2 A random sample.7.3 A time series simulated by an autoregressive random model.7.4 An observed time series of annual discharge.7.5 Simulation of stationary hydrologic time series.7.6 Observed and simulated hydrologic time series of monthly discharge.7.7 Simulation of non-stationary hydrologic time series.7.8 Simulation of daily hydrologic time series with sawtooth pattern.7.9 Calculation of drought characteristics based on an analytical approach.7.10 Summary.8. Regionalization Procedures.8.1 Introduction.8.2 Simple estimation methods.8.3 Multivariate analysis.8.4 Regional regression models - A review and global comparison.8.5 Hydrological mapping procedures.8.6 Summary.Part III: Human Influences, Ecological and Operational Aspects.9. Human Influences.9.1 Introduction.9.2 Model concepts.9.3 Impact of land-use change.9.4 Impact of climate change.9.5 Impact of groundwater abstraction.9.6 Impact of urbanization.9.7 Impact of surface water control.9.8 Summary.10. Stream Ecology and Flow Management.10.1 Introduction.10.2 Stream ecology.10.3 Ecological effects of extreme flows.10.4 Flow management.10.5 Summary.11. Operational Hydrology.11.1 Introduction.11.2 Operational requirements.11.3 The Design cube.11.4 Operational case studies.11.5 Summary.12. Outlook.12.1 Introduction.12.2 Data and monitoring.12.3 Drought forecasting and early warning.12.4 Drought processes and indices.12.5 Drought prediction.12.6 Advancing stream ecology and flow management.12.7 Communication and transfer of knowledge.12.8 Drought partnerships.12.9 Conclusions.Appendix 2.1: Koppen's Climate Classification.Appendix 3.1: Water Balance of Catchment Domains.Appendix 6.1: Probability Distributions.Appendix 6.2: L-Moment Estimators.References.Index.