Human Hypothalamus: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Part II

Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab)


  • Dick Swaab, Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

This volume provides a comprehensive understanding of the human hypothalamus, an extremely complex structure that consists of a large number of very different functional units. It approaches the subject in a way that has not historically existed in standard neuropathological investigations of the human brain.

As the hypothalamus was traditionally considered to be a neuroendocrine structure, and hence of little interest to neurologists, this volume explores new findings in the field and the value they bring to the field of neurology.

New understandings of the role the hypothalamus plays in memory and attention deficits in the dementias, along with greater evidence that the hypothalamus is related to symptoms and signs in both neurological and psychological disorders provide users in the fields of neuroscience, endocrinology, pediatrics, and psychology with a comprehensive resource on which to base new research and exploration.

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Clinical neurologists and researchers in the neurosciences


Book information

  • Published: December 2003
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-51490-5

Table of Contents

Part II. Neuropathology of the Human Hypothalamus and Adjacent Brain Structures.

17. Vascular supply and vascular disorders. 17.1 Blood supply to the hypothalamus and pituitary. 17.2 Vascular lesions of the hypothalamus. 17.3. Choroid plexus of the third ventricle. 18. Disorders of development and growth. 18.1 Anencephaly. 18.2 Transsphenoidal encephalocele and empty sella syndrome. 18.3 Congenital midline defects: optic nerve hypoplasia and septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier's syndrome). 18.4 Dystopia of the neurohypophysis. 18.5 The optic chiasm. 18.6 The growth hormone axis in development and aging. 18.7 Hydrocephalus. 18.8 Septum pellucidum abnormalities. 19. Tumors. 19.1 Symptoms due to hypothalamic tumors. 19.2 Germinoma and teratoma. 19.3 Hamartoma. 19.4 Glioma. 19.5 Craniopharyngioma, Rathke's cleft cysts and xanthogranuloma. 19.6 Dermoid and epidermoid tumors. 19.7 Pineal region tumors. 19.8 Tuberous sclerosis (Bourneville-Pringle syndrome) and tumors of the hypothalamus. 19.9 Metastases. 19.10 Other tumors. 20. Hypothalamic infections. 20.1 Inflammatory conditions affecting the hypothalamus. 20.2 Encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo's encephalitis). 20.3 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). 21. Neuroimmunological disorders. 21.1 Neurosarcoidosis of the hypothalamus. 21.2 Multiple sclerosis (MS) and the hypothalamus. 21.3 Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease; histiocytosis-X).
21.4 Other neuroimmunological hypothalamic disorders and lesions. 22. Drinking disorders. 22.1 Pathology of the neurohypophysis. 22.2 Diabetes insipidus. 22.3 Primary polydipsia and adipsia. 22.4 Nocturnal diuresis. 22.5 Vasopressin hypersecretion in diabetes mellitus. 22.6 Inappropriate secretion of vasopressin. 22.7 Wolfram's syndrome. 23. Eating disorders. 23.1 Prader-Willi syndrome. 23.2 Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. 23.3 Other eating disorders. 24. Reproduction, olfaction and sexual behavior. 24.1 Disorders of gonadotropic hormone regulation. 24.2 Olfaction, anosmia, the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson's organ) and the embryology of LHRH neurons. 24.3 Kallmann's syndrome. 24.4 Klinefelter's syndrome or testicular dysgenesis. 24.5 Sexual differentiation of the brain and sexual behavior. 25. Hypothalamic lesions following trauma and iatrogenic disorders. 25.1 Head/brain injury. 25.2 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 25.3 Hypothalamic injury by radiation. 25.4 Lesion of the pituitary stalk. 26. Hypothalamic involvement in psychiatric disorders. 26.1 Psychiatric symptoms due to tumors of the third ventricle. 26.2 Attacks of laughter (gelastic epilepsy). 26.3 Ventromedial hypothalamus syndrome and the effect of lesions on aggression. 26.4 Depression and mania. 26.5 The hypothalamus in mental deficiency. 26.6 Obsessive-compulsive disorder. 26.7 Anxiety disorders. 26.8 Fatigue syndromes. 26.9 Aggressive behavior. 27. Schizophrenia and autism. 27.1 Schizophrenia. 27.2 Autism. 28. Periodic disorders. 28.1 Kleine-Levin syndrome (periodic somnolence and morbid hunger). 28.2 Spontaneous periodic fever, hypothermia, Shapiro syndrome and periodic Cushing's syndrome. 28.3 Acute intermittent porphyria. 28.4 Narcolepsy. 28.5 Epileptic seizures. 29. Neurodegenerative disorders. 29.1 Alzheimer's disease and the hypothalamus. 29.2 Dementia with argyrophilic grains. 29.3 Parkinson's disease. 29.4 Huntington's disease. 29.5 Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis and Marchiafava-Bignami disease. 29.6 Adrenomyeloneuropathy, adrenoleukodystrophy and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. 29.7 Other neurodegenerative disorders. 30. Autonomic disorders. 30.1 Temperature regulation. 30.2 Disturbed thermoregulation. 30.3 Cardiovascular regulation. 30.4 Cardiovascular disturbances. 30.5 Circumventricular organs: lamina terminalis, subfornical organ and autonomic regulation. 30.6 Micturition. 30.7 Sleep. 31. Pain and addiction. 31.1 Opioid peptides and other addictive compounds. 31.2 Pain and the hypothalamus. 31.3 Headache. 32. Miscellaneous hypothalamic syndromes. 32.1 Idiopathic hypothalamic syndrome of childhood, a paraneoplastic syndrome. 32.2 Hypothalamic atrophy, Leigh's disease and Cornelia de Lange's syndrome. 32.3 Diencephalic idiopathic gliosis. 32.4 Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. 32.5 Agenesis of the diencephalon. 32.6 Tourette's syndrome. 33. Brain death and 'dead' neurons. References. Subject Index for Part I and Part II.