Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)


  • Laurence Cole, Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico; Director, USA hCG Reference Service, Santa Fe, NM, USA

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced during pregnancy by the embryo. It promotes progesterone production by corpus luteal cells. It also functions in pregnancy to promote angiogenesis in uterine vasculature, it immuno-blands the invading placental tissue so it is not rejected by the maternal uterine tissues, promotes the growth of the uterus in line with the growth of the fetus, promotes the differentiation of growing cytotrophoblast cells, promotes the quiescence of contractions in the uterine myometrium during the course of pregnancy, and also has function in growth and development of fetal organs.

The first edition described the detailed biology, clinical chemistry, and clinical perspectives of hCG and associated molecules, and examines hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and hCG free ß-subunit, 3 separate and independent molecules with totally sovereign physiological functions.

The second edition will include coverage of the many new discoveries that have been made in the last five years: hCG analogues may be the actual driving signal of all human cancers. The editor estimates that 40% of the out of date material will be excluded and replaced with 40% of the exciting new findings. The book will also have a much clearer pregnancy and cancer focus.

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Researchers in reproductive medicine, oncology, and endocrinology


Book information

  • Published: December 2014
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-800749-5

Table of Contents

Part A. Introduction
1. The Expanding World of hCG
2. History and Introduction to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), A Group of Five Independent Super-Growth Factors.

Part B. Synthesis, Structure and Action Site
3. The Molecular Genetics of hCG
4. Structure, Synthesis and Secretion of hCG
5. Three Dimensional Structures of hCG and Hyperglycosylated hCG
6. Structures of hCG Free α- and β-Subunits
7. Glycobiology of hCG
8. Detecting hCG and hCG Cariants Using MALDI-ToF Mass Spectrometry
9. The hCG/LH Hormone Receptor
10. TGFβ-II Autocrine Receptor

Part C. Continuous Dissociation and Degradation
11. Degradation Products of hCG, Hyperglycosylated hCG, and
Free β-Subunit

Part D. Biological Function: Pregnancy

12. Pregnacy-1, Functions Pre-Implantation and at Blastocyst Implantation
13. Pregnancy-2, Maintenance of Gestation
14. Pregnancy-3, Creation and Continuation of Hemochorial Placentation
15. Paradigm Shift on the Targets of hCG Actions

Part E. Biological Function: Normal Pituitary
16. Pituitary Sulfated hCG

Part F. Biological Function: Evolution
17. Evolution

Part G. Biological Function: Gestational Trophoblastic
18. Biological Functions of Hyperglycosylated hCG
19. Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases

Part H. Biological Function: Cancer
20. Cancer-1, hCG Variants as a Tumor Marker
21. Cancer-2, hCG Variants Drive Malignancies
22. Cancer-3, Tying Everything Together
23. Biological Function of the Free β-Subunit: Expression and Treatment Target in Cancer
24. hCG and Breast Cancer Conundrum

Part I. Clinical Applications
25. Use of hCG in Reproductive Dysfunction
26. hCG in Assisted Reproduction
27. Illicit Use of hCG in Dietary Programs and Use to Promote Anabolism
28. Positive hCG Tests: Causes Other than Pregnancy

Part J. Assays and Antibodies
29. Antibodies and hCG tests
30. Problems with Today’s hCG Pregnancy Tests
31. The Future and a New Generation of Pregnancy Tests

Part K. Test Applications and Standards
32. Detecting Down Syndrome Pregnancies and Preeclampsia
33. The Biology of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
34. Hyperglycosylated hCG and Free ß-subunit Markers of Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases
35. Quiescent Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Minimally-Aggressive Disease
36. Background hCG
37. hCG Standards

Part L. Methods
38. hCG and Hyperglycosylated hCG Purification and Analysis from
Serum, Urine, and Culture Fluids

Part M. Ethics, Comments and the Future
39. Ethic, Texas and Politics
40. Summary: hCG a Remarkable Molecule
41. hCG and the Future