High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications book cover

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications provides a comprehensive discussion of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCs are the most efficient devices for the electrochemical conversion of chemical energy of hydrocarbon fuels into electricity, and have been gaining increasing attention for clean and efficient distributed power generation. The book explains the operating principle, cell component materials, cell and stack designs and fabrication processes, cell and stack performance, and applications of SOFCs. Individual chapters are written by internationally renowned authors in their respective fields, and the text is supplemented by a large number of references for further information. The book is primarily intended for use by researchers, engineers, and other technical people working in the field of SOFCs. Even though the technology is advancing at a very rapid pace, the information contained in most of the chapters is fundamental enough for the book to be useful even as a text for SOFC technology at the graduate level.

Audience
Designers, manufacturers and end-users of solid oxide and other fuel cells: researchers in fuel cell technology; membrane manufacturers.

Hardbound, 406 Pages

Published: December 2003

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-1-85617-387-2

Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter 1 Introduction to SOFCs

    1.1 Background

    1.2 Historical Summary

    1.3 Zirconia Sensors for Oxygen Measurement

    1.4 Zirconia Availability and Production

    1.5 High-Quality Electrolyte Fabrication Processes

    1.6 Electrode Materials and Reactions

    1.7 Interconnection for Electrically Connecting the Cells

    1.8 Cell and Stack Designs

    1.9 SOFC Power Generation Systems

    1.10 Fuel Considerations

    1.11 Competition and Combination with Heat Engines

    1.12 Application Areas and Relation to Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    1.13 SOFC-Related Publications

    References

    Chapter 2 History

    2.1 The Path to the First Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells

    2.2 From Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    2.3 First Detailed Investigations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    2.4 Progress in the 196Os

    2.5 On the Path to Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    References

    Chapter 3 Thermodynamics

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 The Ideal Reversible SOFC

    3.3. Voltage Losses by Ohmic Resistance and by Mixing Effects by Fuel Utilisation

    3.4 Thermodynamic Definition of a Fuel Cell Producing Electricity and Heat

    3.5 Thermodynamic Theory of SOFC Hybrid Systems

    3.6 Design Principles of SOFC Hybrid Systems

    3.7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 4 Electrolytes

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Fluorite-Structured Electrolytes

    4.3 Zirconia-Based Oxide Ion Conductors

    4.4 Ceria-Based Oxide Ion Conductors

    4.5 Fabrication of ZrO2 and CeO2-Based Electrolyte Films

    4.6 Perovskite-Structured Electrolytes

    4.6.1 LaAlO3

    4.6.2 LaGaO3 Doped with Ca, Sr and Mg

    4.6.3 LaGaO3 Doped with Transition Elements

    4.7 Oxides with Other Structures

    4.7.1 Brownmillerites (e.g. Ba2In2O6)

    4.7.2 Non-cubic Oxides

    4.8 Proton-Conducting Oxides

    4.9 Summary

    References

    Chapter 5 Cathodes

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Physical and Physicochemical Properties of Perovskite Cathode Materials

    5.2.1 Lattice Structure, Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, and Valence Stability

    5.2.2 Electrical Conductivity

    5.2.3 Thermal Expansion

    5.2.4 Surface Reaction Rate and Oxide Ion Conductivity

    5.3 Reactivity of Perovskite Cathodes with ZrO2

    5.3.1 Thermodynamic Considerations

    5.3.2 Experimental Efforts

    5.3.3 Cathode/Electrolyte Reactions and Cell Performance

    5.3.4 Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature SOFCs

    5.4 Compatibility of Perovskite Cathodes with Interconnects

    5.4.1 Compatibility of Cathodes with Oxide Interconnects

    5.4.2 Compatibility of Cathodes with Metallic Interconnects

    5.5 Fabrication of Cathodes

    5.6 Summary

    References

    Chapter 6 Anodes

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Requirements for an Anode

    6.3 Choice of Cermet Anode Components

    6.4 Cermet Fabrication

    6.5 Anode Behavior under Steady-State Conditions

    6.6 Anode Behavior under Transients Near Equilibrium

    6.7 Behavior of Anodes under Current Loading

    6.8 Operation of Anodes with Fuels Other Than Hydrogen

    6.9 Anodes for Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

    6.10 Summary

    References

    Chapter 7 Interconnects

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Ceramic Interconnects (Lanthanum and Yttrium Chromites)

    7.2.1 Electrical Conductivity

    7.2.2 Thermal Expansion

    7.2.3 Thermal Conductivity

    7.2.4 Mechanical Strength

    7.2.5 Processing

    7.3 Metallic Interconnects

    7.3.1 Chromium-Based Alloys

    7.3.2 Ferritic Steels

    7.3.3 Other Metallic Materials

    7.4 Protective Coatings and Contact Materials for Metallic Interconnects

    7.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 8 Cell and Stack Designs

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Planar SOFC Design

    8.2.1 Cell Fabrication

    8.2.2 Cell and Stack Performance

    8.3 Tubular SOFC Design

    8.3.1 Cell Operation and Performance

    8.3.2 Tubular Cell Stack

    8.3.3 Alternative Tubular Cell Designs

    8.4 Microtubular SOFC Design

    8.4.1 Microtubular SOFC Stacks

    8.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 9. Electrode Polarizations

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Ohmic Polarization

    9.3 Concentration Polarization

    9.4 Activation Polarization

    9.4.1 Cathodic Activation Polarization

    9.4.2 Anodic Activation Polarization

    9.5 Measurement of Polarization (By Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy)

    9.6 Summary

    References

    Chapter 10 Testing of Electrodes, Cells and Short Stacks

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Testing Electrodes

    10.3 Testing Cells and 'Short' Stacks

    10.4 Area-Specific Resistance (ASR)

    10.5 Comparison of Test Results on Electrodes and on Cells

    10.5.1 Non-activated Contributions to the Total Loss

    10.5.2 Inaccurate Temperature Measurements

    10.5.3 Cathode Performance

    10.5.4 Impedance Analysis of Cells

    10.6 The Problem of Gas Leakage in Cell Testing

    10.6.1 Assessment of the Size of the Gas Leak

    10.7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 11 Cell, Stack and System Modeling

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Flow and Thermal Models

    11.2.1 Mass Balance

    11.2.2 Conservation of Momentum

    11.2.3 Energy Balance

    11.3 Continuum-Level Electrochemistry Model

    11.4 Chemical Reactions and Rate Equations

    11.5 Cell- and Stack-Level Modeling

    11.6 System-Level Modeling

    11.7 Thermomechanical Model

    11.8 Electrochemical Models at the Electrode Level

    11.8.1 Fundamentals and Strategy of Electrode-Level Models

    11.8.2 Electrode Models Based on a Mass Transfer Analysis

    11.8.3 One-Dimensional Porous Electrode Models Based on Complete Concentration, Potential, and Current Distributions

    11.8.4 Monte Carlo or Stochastic Electrode Structure Model

    11.9 Molecular-Level Models

    11.10 Summary

    References

    Chapter 12 Fuels and Fuel Processing

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Range of Fuels

    12.3 Direct and Indirect Internal Reforming

    12.3.1 Direct Internal Reforming

    12.3.2 Indirect Internal Reforming

    12.4 Reformation of Hydrocarbons by Steam, CO2 and Partial Oxidation

    12.5 Direct Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

    12.6 Carbon Deposition

    12.7 Sulfur Tolerance and Removal

    12.8 Anode Materials in the Context of Fuel Processing

    12.9 Using Renewable Fuels in SOFCs

    12.10 Summary

    References

    Chapter 13 Systems and Applications

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Trends in the Energy Markets and SOFC Applicability

    13.3 Competing Power Generation Systems and SOFC Applications

    13.4 SOFC System Designs and Performance

    13.4.1 Atmospheric SOFC Systems for Distributed Power Generation

    13.4.2 Residential, Auxiliary Power and Other Atmospheric SOFC Systems

    13.4.3 Pressurized SOFC/Turbine Hybrid Systems

    13.4.4 System Control and Dynamics

    13.4.5 SOFC System Costs

    13.4.6 Example of a Specific SOFC System Application

    13.5 SOFC System Demonstrations

    13.5.1 Siemens Westinghouse Systems

    13.5.2 Sulzer Hexis Systems

    13.5.3 SOFC Systems of Other Companies

    13.6 Summary

    References

    Index


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