High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications book cover

High-temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Design and Applications

The growing interest in fuel cells as a sustainable source of energy is pulling with it the need for new books which provide comprehensive and practical information on specific types of fuel cell and their application. This landmark volume on solid oxide fuel cells contains contributions from experts of international repute, and provides a single source of the latest knowledge on this topic.

Audience
Designers, manufacturers and end-users of solid oxide and other fuel cells: researchers in fuel cell technology; membrane manufacturers.

Hardbound, 406 Pages

Published: December 2003

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-1-85617-387-2

Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Introduction to SOFCs
    1.2 Background
    1.3 Historical Summary
    1.4 Zironia Sensors for Oxygen Measurement
    1.5 Zirconia Availability and Production
    1.6 High-Quality Electrolyte Fabrication Processes
    1.7 Electrode Materials and Reactions
    1.8 Interconnection for Electrically Connecting the CellsCell and Stack Designs
    1.9 SOFC Power Generation Systems
    1.10 Fuel Consierations
    1.11 Competition and Combination with Head Engines
    1.12 Application Areas and Relation to Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
    1.13 SOFC-Related Publications
    References

    Chapter 2 - History
    2.1 The Path to the First Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells
    2.2 From Solid Electrolyte Gas Cells to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    2.3 First Detailed Investigations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    2.4 Progess in the 1960s
    2.5 On the Path to Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    References

    Chapter 3 - Thermodynamics
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 The Ideal Reversible SOFC
    3.3 Voltage Losses by Ohmic Resistance and by Mixing Effects by Fuel Utilisation
    3.4 Thermodynamic Definition of a Fuel Cell Producing Electricity and Heat
    3.5 Thermodynamic Theory of SOFC Hybrid Systems
    3.6 Design Priciples of SOFC Hybrid Systems
    3.7 Summary
    References

    Chapter 4 - Electrolyte
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Fluorite-Structured Electrolytes
    4.3 Zirconia-Based Oxide Ion Conductors
    4.4 Ceria-Based Oxide Ion Conductors
    4.4 Fabrication of ZrO2 and CeO2-Based Electrolyte Films
    4.6 Perovskite-Structured Electrolytes
    4.6.1 LaAIO3
    4.6.2 LaAIO3 Doped with Ca, Sr and Mg
    4.6.3 LaAIO3 Doped with Transition Elements
    4.7 Oxides with Other Structures
    4.7.1 Brownmillerites (e.g. Ba2In2O6)
    4.7.2 Non-cubic Oxides
    4.8 proton-Conducting Oxides
    4.9 Summary
    References

    Chapter 5 - Cathode
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Physical and Physicochemical Properties of Perovskite Cathode Materials
    5.2.1 Lattice Structure, Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, and Valence Stability
    5.2.2 Electrical Conductivity
    5.2.3 Thermal Expansion
    5.2.4 Surface Reaction Rate and Oxide Ion Conductivity
    5.3 Reactivity of Perovskite Cathodes with ZrO2
    5.3.1 Thermodynamic Considerations
    5.3.1.1 Reaction of Perovskites with the Zirconia Component in YSZ
    5.3.1.2 Reaction of perovskite with the yttria (dopant) component in YSZ
    5.3.1.3 Interdiffusion between Perovskite and Fluorite Oxides
    5.3.2 Experimental Efforts
    5.3.3 Cathode/Electrolyte Reactions and Cell Performance
    5.3.4 Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature SOFCs
    5.4 Compatibility of Perovskite Cathodes with Interconnects
    5.4.1 Compatibility of Cathodes with Oxide Interconnects
    5.4.2 Compatibility of Cathodes with Metallic nterconnects
    5.5 Fabrication of Cathodes
    5.6 Summary
    References

    Chapter 6 - Anodes
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Requirements for an Anode
    6.3 Choice of Cermet Anode Components
    6.4 Cermet Fabrication
    6.5 Anode Behaviour Under Steady-State Conditions
    6.6 Anode Behaviour Under Translents Near Equilibrium
    6.7 Behaviour of Anodes Under Current Loading
    6.8 Operation of Anodes with Fuels other than Hydrogen
    6.9 Anodes for Direct Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
    6.10 Summary
    References

    Chapter 7 - Interconnect
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Ceramic Interconnects (Lanthanum and Yttrium Chromites)
    7.2.1 Electrical Conductivity
    7.2.2 Thermal Expansion
    7.2.3 Thermal Conductivity
    7.2.4 Mechanical Strength
    7.2.5 Processing
    7.3 Metallic Interconnects
    7.3.1 Chromium-Based Alloys
    7.3.2 Ferritic Steels
    7.3.3 Other Metallic Materials
    7.4 Protective Coatings and Contact Materials for Metallic Interconnects
    7.5 Summary
    References

    Chapter 8 - Cell and Stack Designs
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Planar SOFC Design
    8.2.1 Cell Fabrication
    8.2.1.1 Cell Fabrication Based on Particulate Approach
    8.2.1.2 Cell Fabrication Based on Deposition Approach
    8.2.2 Cell and Stack Performance
    8.3 Tubular SOFC Design
    8.3.1 Cell Operation and Performance
    8.3.2 Tubular Cell Stack
    8.3.3 Alternative Tubular Cell Designs
    8.4 Microtubular SOFC Design
    8.4.1 Microtubular SOFC Stacks
    8.5 Summary
    References

    Chapter 9 - Electrode Polarisations
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Ohmic Polarisation
    9.3 Concentration Polarisation
    9.4 Activation Polarisation
    9.4.1 Cathodic Activation Polarisation
    9.4.2 Anodic Activation Polarisation
    9.5 Measurement of Polarisation (By Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy)
    9.6 Summary
    References

    Chapter 10 - Testing of Electrodes, Cells and Short Stacks
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Testing Electrodes
    10.3 Testing Cells and 'Short' Stacks
    10.4 Area-Specific Resistance (ASR)
    10.5 Comparison of Test Results on Electrodes and on cells
    10.5.1 Non-activated Contributions to the Total Loss
    10.5.2 Inaccurate Temperature Measurements
    10.5.3 Cathode Performance
    10.5.4 Impedance Analysis of Cells
    10.6 The Problem of Gas Leakage in Cell Testing
    10.6.1 Assessment of the Size of the Cas Leak
    10.7 Summary
    References

    Chapter 11 - Cell, Stack and System Modelling
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Flow and Thermal Models
    11.2.1 Mass Balance
    11.2.2 Conservation of Momentum
    11.2.3 Energy Balance
    11.3 Continuum-Level Electrochemistry Model
    11.4 Chemical Reactions and Rate Equations
    11.5 Cell-and Stack-Level Modelling
    11.6 System-Level Modelling
    11.7 Thermomechanical Model
    11.8 Electrochemical Models at the Electrode Level
    11.8.1 Fundamentals and Strategy of Electrode-Level Models
    11.8.2 Electrode Models Based on a Mass Transfer Analysis
    11.8.3 One-Dimensional Porous Electrode Models Based on Complete Concentration, Potential, and Current Distrbutions
    11.8.4 Monte Carolo or Stochastic Electrode Structure Model
    11.8.4.1 Electrode or Cell Models Applied to Ohmic Resistance-Dominated Cells
    11.8.4.2 Diagnostic Modelling of Electrodes to Elucidate Reaction Mechanisms
    11.8.4.3 Models fo Mixed Ionic and Electronic Conducting (MIEC) Electrodes
    11.9 Molecular-Level Models
    11.10 Summary
    References

    Chapter 12 - Fuels and Fuel Processing
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Range of Fuels
    12.3 Direct and Indirect Internal Reforming
    12.3.1 Direct Internal Reforming
    12.3.2 Indirect Internal Reforming
    12.4 Reformation of Hydrocarbos by Steam, CO2 and Partial Oxidation
    12.5 Direct Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons
    12.6 Carbon Depostion
    12.7 Sulphur Tolerance and Removal
    12.8 Anode Materials in the Context of Fuel Processing
    12.9 Using Renewable Fuels in SOFCs
    12.10 Summary
    References

    Chapter 13 - Systems and Applications
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Trends in the Eneergy Markets and SOFC Applicability
    13.3 Competing Power Generation Systems and SOFC Applications
    13.4 SOFC System Designs and Performance
    13.4.1 Atmospheric SOFC Systems for Distributed Power Generation
    13.4.2 Residential, Auxilliary Power and Other Atmospheric SOFC Systems
    13.4.3 Pressurised SOFC/Turbine Hybrid Systems
    13.4.4 System Control and Dynamics
    13.4.5 SOFC System Costs
    13.4.6 Example of a Specific SOFC System Application
    13.5 SOFC System Demonstrations
    13.5.1 Siemens Westinghouse Systems
    13.5.1.1 100 kW Atmospheric SOFC System
    13.5.1.2 220 Kw Pressurised SOFC/GT Hybrid System
    13.5.1.3 Other Systems
    13.5.2 Sulzer Hexis Systems
    13.5.3 SOFC Systems of Other Companies
    13.6 Summary
    References

    Chapter 13 - Applications and Demonstrations

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