High Dynamic Range Imaging

Acquisition, Display, and Image-Based Lighting

By

  • Erik Reinhard, University of Bristol, UK
  • Wolfgang Heidrich
  • Paul Debevec, Institute for Creative Technologies, University of Southern California, U.S.A.
  • Sumanta Pattanaik, University of Central Florida, Orlando, U.S.A.
  • Greg Ward, Independent Consultant, Albany, California, U.S.A.
  • Karol Myszkowski, Senior Researcher in the Computer Graphics Group of the Max-Planck-Institut für Informatik (Germany).

This landmark book is the first to describe HDRI technology in its entirety and covers a wide-range of topics, from capture devices to tone reproduction and image-based lighting. The techniques described enable you to produce images that have a dynamic range much closer to that found in the real world, leading to an unparalleled visual experience. As both an introduction to the field and an authoritative technical reference, it is essential to anyone working with images, whether in computer graphics, film, video, photography, or lighting design.
View full description

Audience

R&D Professionals in computer graphics, digital design and visualization. Visual effects artists in entertainment industry (including interactive entertainment/games). Engineering staff (i.e. coders, implementors of HDRI) at HDRI display/sensor manufacturers (e.g., Phillips, Samsung).

 

Book information

  • Published: May 2010
  • Imprint: MORGAN KAUFMANN
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-374914-7

Reviews

"With the mainstream introduction of affordable LED HDTVs and computer monitors, the principles of high dynamic range imaging have gone from an academic research topic to essential knowledge. For anyone involved in software or hardware development for computer games and entertainment video, this second edition of High Dynamic Range Imaging offers everything you need and more. Highly recommended."

-Ian Ashdown, President, byHeart Consultants Limited




Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Light and Color

2.1 Radiometry

2.2 Photometry

2.3 Colorimetry

2.4 Color Spaces

2.5 White Point and Illuminants

2.6 Spectral Sharpening

2.7 Color Opponent Spaces

2.8 Color Correction

2.9 Color Appearance

2.10 Display Gamma

2.11 Brightness Encoding

2.12 Standard RGB Color Spaces

3 High Dynamic Range Image Encodings

3.1 LDR vs. HDR Encodings

3.2 Applications of HDR Images

3.3 HDR Image Formats

3.4 HDR Encoding Comparison

3.5 Conclusions

4 HDR Video Encodings

4.1 Custom HDR Video Coding

4.2 Backward Compatible HDR Video Compression

5 HDR Image Capture

5.1 Photography & Light Measurement

5.2 HDR Image Capture from Multiple Exposures

5.3 Film Scanning

5.4 Image Registration/Alignment

5.5 The Median Threshold Bitmap Alignment Technique

5.6 Other Alignment Methods

5.7 Deriving the Camera Response Function

5.8 Noise Removal

5.9 Ghost Removal

5.10 Lens Flare Removal

5.11 HDR Capture Hardware

5.12 Conclusion

6 Display Devices and Printing Technologies

6.1 Display Technologies

6.2 Local Dimming HDR Displays

6.3 Printing

6.4 Conclusions

7 Perception-Based Tone Reproduction

7.1 Tone Mapping Problem

7.2 Human Visual Adaptation

7.3 Visual Adaptation Models for HDR Tone Mapping

7.4 Background Intensity in Complex Images

7.5 Dynamics of Visual Adaptation

7.6 Design Considerations

8 Tone Reproduction Operators

8.1 Sigmoidal Tone Reproduction Operators

8.2 Image AppearanceModels

8.3 Other HVS-Based Models

8.4 Apparent Contrast and Brightness Enhancement

8.5 Other Tone Reproduction Operators

8.6 Exposure Fusion

8.7 Summary

9 Inverse Tone Reproduction

9.1 Expansion Functions

9.2 Under- and Over-Exposed Material

9.3 Suppressing Quantization and Encoding Artifacts

9.4 A Preference Studies

9.5 Suggested Applications

9.6 Summary

10 Visible Difference Predictors

10.1 Subjective versus Objective Quality Metrics

10.2 Classification of Objective Quality Metrics

10.3 Full-reference Quality Metrics

10.4 Pixel-based Metrics

10.5 Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) Index

10.6 Perception-based Fidelity Metrics

10.7 The HDR Visible Differences Predictor

10.8 Dynamic Range Independent (DRI) Image Quality Metric

10.9 Supra-Threshold HDR Image Quality Metrics

10.10Accounting for Partial Adaptation

10.11Summary

11 Image-Based Lighting

11.1 Introduction

11.2 How the Renderer Computes IBL Images

11.3 Capturing and Representing Light Probe Images

11.4 Omnidirectional Image Mappings

11.5 Capturing very bright sources such as the sun

11.6 The Sampling Problem

11.7 Advanced Image-Based Lighting Techniques

11.8 Useful IBL Approximations

11.9 Image-Based Lighting Real Objects and People

11.10Real-time Image-Based Lighting

11.11Conclusion

A List of Symbols