HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks

Toward a Multidisciplinary Science

Edited By

  • John Carroll, Penn State University

Finally┬┐a thorough pedagogical survey of the multidisciplinary science of HCI.Human-Computer Interaction spans many disciplines, from the social and behavioral sciences to information and computer technology. But of all the textbooks on HCI technology and applications, none has adequately addressed HCI's multidisciplinary foundations┬┐until now. HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks fills a huge void in the education and training of advanced HCI students. Its authors comprise a veritable house of diamonds┬┐internationally known HCI researchers, every one of whom has successfully applied a unique scientific method to solve practical problems.Each chapter focuses on a different scientific analysis or approach, but all in an identical format, especially designed to facilitate comparison of the various models.HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks answers the question raised by the other HCI textbooks: How can HCI theory can support practice in HCI?* Traces HCI research from its origins* Surveys 14 different successful research approaches in HCI* Presents each approach in a common format to facilitate comparisons* Web-enhanced with teaching tools at http://www.HCImodels.com
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Professionals, educators, and students in human-computer interaction (HCI) who want to gain a better understanding of the theoretical bases of HCI, and who will make use of a good background, refresher, reference to the field and/or index to the literature.


Book information

  • Published: April 2003
  • ISBN: 978-1-55860-808-5


"Not since Card, Moran, and Newell's Psychology of Human Computer Interaction in 1983 has so much been brought together to advance the science of HCI. This book is a must-read for researchers and Ph. D. students. I am very impressed with the undertaking of this book and with its results. We have many models and theories in HCI, and this book collects them and encourages people to think about them together. I'm sure good things will come from those who digest this all." --Judith Olson, University of Michigan "Only with slowly evolving frameworks such as these can we understand and guide the advances in technology and its uses that lie ahead. This landmark collection will be of lasting value." --Jonathan Grudin, Microsoft Research "Computing and information technologies are providing profound advances for individuals and society. We have gained new insights from perceiving dynamic visualizations; enhanced our thinking by manipulating flexible representations; increased our knowledge through global search technologies; discovered new modes of communication and collaboration through networked technologies; formed new communities and relationships from near-universal access to the Web; developed new methods of buying and selling; and so on. The phenomena underlying the relation between people and technology are complex and varied. Understanding these phenomena is a real challenge, especially given that they span perceptual, cognitive, social, organizational, commercial, and cultural factors. Practitioners in HCI disciplines (interaction designers, information architects, usability testers, ethnographic field investigators, etc.) offer skills, methods, and practices to design and evaluate these technologies. Researchers in HCI provide innovations and empirical groundings, as well as theoretical perspectives, which are critical for a robust field. But the theoretical work is scattered across many sources, and practitioners are largely unaware of the range of theoretical work that has been done. This volume is a valuable collection of diverse theoretical perspectives by some of the most articulate advocates in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. It is a unique resource for grasping the broad landscape of theoretical thinking that frames HCI. HCI practitioners should study it to deepen their understanding of the phenomena they are trying to influence. And HCI researchers should study it for inspiration to broaden and strengthen the theoretical foundations of HCI." --Tom Moran, IBM Almaden Research Center

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science of Human-Computer Interactionby John M. Carroll, Virginia Tech 1.1 The Golden Age1.2 Let 100 Flowers Bloom1.3 Scientific Fragmentation1.4 Teaching and Learning References2. Design as Applied Perceptionby Colin Ware, University of New Hampshire2.1 Motivation2.2 Scientific Foundation 2.2.1 Stage 1: Features in Early Vision 2.2.2 Stage 2: Pattern Perception 2.2.3 Stage 3: Objects 2.2.4 Claims and Limitations2.3 Case Study2.4 Current Status of Theoretical Approach 2.4.1 Application References3. Motor Behavior Models for Human-Computer Interactionby I. Scott MacKenzie, York University, Toronto, Canada3.1 Motivation3.2 Overview: Models and Modeling 3.2.1 Predictive Models 3.2.2 Descriptive Models3.3 Scientific Foundations and Model Descriptions 3.3.1 Fitts's Law 3.3.2 Guird's Model of Bimanual Skill3.4 Case Studies 3.4.1 Case Study #1: Fitts's Law Prediction of Text-Entry Rates on Mobile Phones 3.4.2 Case Study #2: Bimanual Control and Desktop Computer Affordances3.5 Current Status and Further ReadingReferences4. Information Processing and Skilled Behaviorby Bonnie E. John, Carnegie Mellon University4.1 Motivation for Using the Human Information Processing Theory in Human-Computer Interaction4.2 Overview of GOMS4.3 Scientific Foundations Underlying GOMS 4.3.1 Conceptual Frameworks 4.3.2 Computational Cognitive Architectures 4.3.3 Task-Analysis Techniques4.4 Detailed Description 4.4.1 KLM 4.4.2 CMN-GOMS 4.4.3 CPM-GOMS4.5 Case Study: Project Ernestine 4.5.1 Details of Project Ernestine's CPM-GOMS Modeling Effort4.6 Current Status 4.6.1 GOMS in Particular 4.6.2 Human Information Processing in General4.7 Further Reading 4.7.1 Seminal Text in Human Information 4.7.2 Human Information Processing in HCI 4.7.3 Human Information Processing Embodied in Computational Cognitive Architectures 4.7.4 ACT-R 4.7.5 EPICReferences5. Notational Systems┬┐The Cognitive Dimensions of Notations Frameworkby Alan Blackwell and Thomas Green, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England5.1 Motivation 5.1.1 Example5.2 Overview5.3 Scientific Foundations5.4 Detailed Description 5.4.1 Activities 5.4.2 The Components of Notational Systems 5.4.3 Notational Dimensions 5.4.4 Profiles 5.4.5 Trade-Offs 5.4.6 Use by an Analyst5.4.7 A Questionnaire Approach5.4.8 Cognitive Dimensions of Interactive Devices5.5 Case Study: Evaluating a Visual-Programming Language 5.5.1 Illustrating the Notation 5.5.2 Conclusions5.6 Current Status 5.6.1 Dissemination 5.6.2 Clarification and Formalization 5.6.3 Coverage 5.6.4 Analysis Tools 5.6.5 Beyond CDs: Misfit Analysis5.7 Further ReadingReferences6. Users' Mental Models: The Very Ideasby Stephen J. Payne, Cardiff University, Wales6.1 Motivation6.2 Scientific Foundations 6.2.1 Idea 1. Mental Content vs. Cognitive Architecture: Mental Models as Theories 6.2.2 Idea 2. Models vs. Methods: Mental Models as Problem Spaces 6.2.3 Idea 3. Models vs. Descriptions: Mental Models as Homomorphisms 6.2.4 Idea 4. Models of Representations: Mental Models Can Be Derived from Language, Perception, or Imagination6.3 Detailed Description 6.3.1 Idea 1. Mental Representations of Representational Artifacts 6.3.2 Idea 2. Mental Models as Computationally Equivalent to External Representations6.4 Case Study 6.4.1 A Yoked State Spaces Analysis of Calendar Design 6.4.2 Experiments on Internalization of Device Instructions6.5 Further Reading (ed┬┐please confirm┬┐this isn't in my notes) References7. Exploring and Finding Informationby Peter Pirolli, Palo Alto Research Center7.1 Introduction7.2 Motivation: Man the Informavore 7.2.1 Emergence of the Global Information Ecology7.3 Scientific Foundations 7.3.1 Influence of Evolutionary Theory: Adaptationist Approaches 7.3.2 Information-Foraging Theory 7.3.3 Optimal-Foraging Theory 7.4 Detailed Description: Scatter/Gather 7.4.1 Simulating Users 7.4.2 Information Scent 7.4.3 Information-Foraging Evaluations 7.4.4 Simulating Users and Evaluating Alternative Scatter/Gather Diagrams7.5 Case Study: The World Wide Web 7.5.1 Information Scent as a Major Determinant of Web User Behavior 7.5.2 Simulated Users and Usability Evaluation7.6 Current StatusAuthor NotesReferences8. Distributed Cognitionby Mark Perry, Brunel University, London, England8.1 Motivation 8.1.1 Designing Collaborative Technologies 8.1.2 Distributed Cognition in Context 8.2 Overview8.3 Scientific Foundations 8.3.1 External Support for Thought and Systems Perspectives in Cognition8.4 Detailed Description 8.4.1 Computation and Cognition 8.4.2 The Social Organization of Group Problem Solving 8.4.3 Communication and Coordination of Distributed Knowledge 8.4.4 "Doing" DCog8.5 Case Study: Engineering Design and Construction 8.5.1 Organizational Coordination and Control in Representation Transformation 8.5.2 Representational Transformations in Information Processing 8.5.3 Coordination of Representational Transformations 8.5.4 Summary8.6 Current StatusAuthor NotesFurther ReadingReferences9. Cognitive Work Analysisby Penelope M. Sanderson, University of Queensland, Australia9.1 Motivation 9.1.1 Connection of CWA with Other Areas 9.1.2 Designing for Unanticipated Events in First-of-a-Kind Systems9.2 Overview of CWA9.3 Scientific Foundations 9.3.1 A Systems Perspective 9.3.2 An Ecological Orientation 9.3.3 The Role of Cognition 9.3.4 Summary9.4 Detailed Description 9.4.1 Overviews of CWA 9.4.2 Description of CWA Classes of Constraint 9.4.3 CWA and the System Life Cycle9.5 Case Studies 9.5.1 Display Design 9.5.2 Systems Engineering and Human-System Integration9.6 Current Status9.7 Further ReadingReferences10. Common Ground in Electronically Mediated Communication: Clark's Theory of Language Useby Andrew Monk, University of York, England10.1 Motivation 10.1.1 Production Plus Comprehension Multiplied by Communication 10.1. 2 Language Use as a Collaborative Activity10.2 Overview10.3 Scientific Foundations10.4 Detailed Description 10.4.1 Fundamentals 10.4.2 Grounding, Levels, Layers, and Tracks10.5 Case Studies┬┐Applying the Theory to the Design of Technology for Communication 10.5.1 The Costs of Grounding (Clark & Brennan) 10.5.2 Why Cognoter Did Not Work (Tatar, Foster, & Bobrow)10.5.3 Predicting the Peripherality of Peripheral Participants (Watts & Monk)10.6 Current Status10.7 Further ReadingAcknowledgmentsReferences11. Activity Theoryby Olav W. Bertelsen and Susanne B├Şdker, University of Aarhus, Denmark11.1 Motivation 11.1.1 Through the Interface┬┐Artifacts Used in Context 11.1.2 In Search of a New Theoretical Foundation 11.1.3 What Does It Offer? 11.1.4 What Is It Like? 11.1.5 What Sets It Apart?11.2 Overview11.3 Scientific Foundations11.4 Detailed Description 11.4.1 Mediation 11.4.2 Internationalization┬┐Externalization 11.4.3 Computer Artifacts in a Web of Activities 11.4.4 Development 11.4.5 Activity Theory in Practical Design and Evaluation11.5 Case Study 11.5.1 Focus and Focus Shifts 11.5.2 The Concept of Artifacts in Use as a Tool in the Redesign of the CPN Tool 11.5.3 The User Interface11.6 Current Status11.7 Further ReadingReferences12. Applying Social Psychological Theory to the Problems of Group Workby Robert E. Kraut, Carnegie Mellon University12.1 Motivation12.2 An Overview of CSCW Research12.3 Scientific Foundations 12.3.1 Input-Process-Output Models of Group Functioning 12.3.2 Process Losses 12.3.3 Social Loafing12.4 Detailed Description┬┐Explaining Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Teams 12.4.1 Application to System Design12.5 Case Study: Applying Social-Psychological Theory to the Problem of Undercontribution to Online Groups 12.5.1 Social Loafing and Online Groups12.6 Current StatusReferences13. Studies of Work in Human-Computer Interactionby Graham Button, Xerox Research Centre Europe, Grenoble, France13.1 Motivation13.2 Overview: A Paradigmatic13.3. Scientific Foundations 13.3.1 Ethnography 13.3.2 Situated Action 13.3.3 Ethnomethodology13.4 Detailed Description 13.4.1 Critique 13.4.2 Evaluation 13.4.3 Requirements 13.4.4 Foundational Reconceptualizations13.5 Case Study13.6 Current Status13.7 Further ReadingReferences14. Upside-Down Vs and Algorithms┬┐Computational Formalisms and Theoryby Alan Dix, Lancaster University, England14.1 Motivation 14.1.1 What Is Formal? 14.1.2 The Myth of Informality 14.1.3 Chapter Overview14.2 First Steps 14.2.1 Two Examples 14.2.2 Lessons14.3 Scientific Foundations 14.3.1 A Brief History of Formalism 14.3.2 The Limits of Knowledge 14.3.3 The Theory of Computing 14.3.4 Complexity 14.3.5 Good Enough 14.3.6 Agents and Interaction 14.3.7 Notations and Specifications 14.3.8 Kinds of Notation14.4 Detailed Description 14.4.1 Two Plus Two┬┐Using Simple Calculation 14.4.2 Detailed Specification 14.4.3 Modeling for Generic Issues 14.4.4 Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Groupware 14.4.5 Time and Continuous Interaction 14.4.6 Paradigms and Inspiration 14.4.7 Socio-Organizational Church-Turing Hypothesis14.5 Case Study┬┐Dialogue Specification for Transaction Processing 14.5.1 Background┬┐Transaction Processing 14.5.2 The Problem . . . 14.5.3 All About State 14.5.4 The Solution 14.5.5 Why It Worked . . .14.6 Current Status 14.6.1 Retrospective┬┐Formal Methods in Computing 14.6.2 Retrospective┬┐Formal Methods in HCI 14.6.3 Prospective14.7 Further ReadingReferences15. Design Rationale as Theoryby John M. Carroll and Mary Beth Rosson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute15.1 Motivation15.2 Overview15.3 Scientific Foundations 15.3.1 Ecological Science 15.3.2 Action Science 15.3.3 Synthetic Science15.4 Detailed Description15.5 Case Study 15.5.1 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Action Science 15.5.2 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Ecological Science 15.5.3 MOOsburg as a Case Study in Synthetic Science15.6 Current Status and Further ReadingAcknowledgmentsReferences