Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts book cover

Handbook of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts

Regeneration, Rejuvenation, Reclamation, Environment and Safety

This handbook serves scientists and researchers interested in any aspect of spent hydroprocessing catalysts. Its aim is to assist in the analysis and assessment of refined catalyst byproducts and processing options, to determine whether spent catalysts can be processed into productive resources. For non-regenerable spent catalysts, the book takes into consideration both safety and ecological implications of utilizing landfill and other waste options.

Audience

This work will be of interest to academic institutions specializing in petroleum research, petroleum companies, and petroleum research institutes, as well as to catalyst regenerators, catalyst manufacturers, metal reclaiming companies, and governments and agencies involved in regulatory affairs.

Hardbound, 362 Pages

Published: June 2010

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53556-6

Contents

  •   1. INTRODUCTION

    2. DEVELOPMENT IN PETROLEUM REFINING
    2.1. Conventional Refineries
    2.2. Revamped conventional refineries
    2.3. Advanced Refineries

    3. HYDROPROCESSING OF PETROLEUM
    3.1. Feeds for Hydroprocessing
    3.1.1. Light feeds
    3.1.2. Medium heavy feeds
    3.1.3. Heavy and extra heavy feeds
    3.2. Hydroprocessing reactions
    3.3. Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    3.3.1. Structure and chemical composition
    3.3.1.1. Co(Ni)-Mo(W)-S phase
    3.3.1.2. Brim site model
    3.3.1.3. Co-Mo-S© phase
    3.3.1.4. Effect of support
    3.3.1.5. Physical properties
    3.3.1.6.Improved hydroprocessing catalysts
    3.4. Hydroprocessing Reactors and Processes
    3.4.1. Fixed bed reactor systems
    3.4.1.1. Unibon process
    3.4.1.2. ARDS and Hyvahl processes
    3.4.2. Moving and ebullated bed reactors.
    3.4.3. Comparison of hydroprocessing reactors

    4. CATALYST DEACTIVATION
    4.1. Deactivation Due to Structural Change of Catalyst
    4.2. Deactivation by Coke and Nitrogen Bases
    4.3. Combined Effect of Coke and Metals on Deactivation
    4.4. Effect of Temperature and Hydrogen Pressure
    4.5. Effect of Mechanical Properties of Catalyst
    4.6. Mechanism of Catalyst  Deactivation
    4.6.1. Mechanism of coke formation
    4.6.1.1. Chemical aspects
    4.6.1.2. Physical aspects
    4.6.2. Mechanism of metal deposition
    4.6.2.1. Deposition of inorganic solids
    4.6.2.2. Deposits of organometallic origin
    4.6.2.2.1. Vanadium deposits
    4.6.2.2.2. Nickel and mixed deposits
    4.7. Modeling of Deactivation Process

    5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF SPENT HYDROPROCESSING CATALYSTS
    5.1. Regulatory Affairs
    5.1.1. Classification of spent hydroprocessing catalysts
    5.1.2. Transportation of spent catalysts
    5.1.3. Recycling and disposal of spent catalysts
    5.1.4. Handling of Spent Catalysts on Refinery Site
    5.1.5. Cradle-to-grave approach to spent catalyst management
    5.2. Hazardous Characteristics of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    5.2.1. Exposure to air
    5.2.2. Reactions of air with coke
    5.2.3. Reactions of air with catalyst
    5.2.4. Leachability
    5.3. Pretreatment of Spent Catalysts for Disposal

    6. REGENERATION
    6.1. Regenerability of Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    6.2. Oxidative Regeneration
    6.2.1. Mechanism of oxidative regeneration
    6.2.1.1. Oxidation of coke
    6.2.1.2. Involvement of metals
    6.2.2. Kinetics of oxidative regeneration
    6.2.2.1. Chemically controlled kinetics
    6.2.2.2. Diffusion controlled kinetics
    6.2.3. Modeling of oxidative regeneration
    6.2.4. Characterization of regenerated catalyst
    6.2.4.1. Surface properties
    6.2.4.2. Activity of regenerated catalysts
    6.2.4.3. Chemical structure
    6.2.5. Safety and environmental aspects of oxidative regeneration
    6.2.6. Other oxidation agents
    6.3. Other Regeneration Methods
    6.3.1. Regeneration in H2O and CO2
    6.3.2. Regeneration with nitrogen oxides
    6.3.3. Reactivation
    6.3.4. Regeneration Aided by Radiation Treatment
    6.3.5. Reductive Regeneration
    6.3.6. Regeneration by Attrition and Abrasion
    6.3.7. Resulfiding of Regenerated Catalysts
    6.4. Industrial Regeneration
    6.4.1. In-situ regeneration
    6.4.2. Off-site regeneration
    6.4.3. Mechanical separation of spent catalysts
    6.4.4. Commercial regeneration processes
    6.4.4.1. Porocel-Belt regeneration process
    6.4.4.2. TRICAT regeneration process
    6.2.4.3. Eurecat process
    6.2.4.4. REACT process
    6.2.4.5. ReFRESH process
    6.2.4.6. Rotary kilns
    6.4.5. Comparison of regeneration processes

    7. REJUVENATION
    7.1. Organic Agents
    7.1.1. Mechanism of rejuvenation by organic agents
    7.1.2. Kinetics of rejuvenation
    7.1.3. Emissions from rejuvenation by organic agents
    7.1.3.1. Gaseous emissions
    7.1.3.2. Liquid emissions
    7.1.3.3. Solid emissions
    7.1.4. Rejuvenation process design
    7.1.4.1. De-oiling
    7.1.4.2. Mechanical separation
    7.1.4.3. Metals leaching process
    7.1.4.4. Decoking of leached catalysts
    7.1.4.5. Other auxiliary processes
    7.1.4.6. Design basis
    7.2. Inorganic Agents
    7.2.1. Acidic agents
    7.2.2. Basic agents
    7.2.3. Environmental and safety aspects
    7.3. Solvent Extraction
    7.4. Bio-rejuvenation
    7.5. Non-Leaching Methods for Contaminant Metals Removal


    8. CASCADING
    8.1. Cascading of Spent Catalysts
    8.2. Cascading of Regenerated Catalysts
    8.3. Cascading of Rejuvenated Catalysts

    9. NEW CATALYSTS FROM SPENT CATALYSTS
    9.1. Petroleum Applications
    9.1.1. Reprocessing
    9.1.1.1. Procedure and analysis
    9.1.1.2. Testing of coprocessed catalysts
    9.1.1.3. Effect of hydrothermal treatment on reprocessed catalysts
    9.1.2. Other preparation methods
    9.1.3. Spent catalysts in slurry bed hydrocracking
    9.2. Catalysts for Non-Petroleum Applications
    9.3. Gas Treatment Sorbents
    9.4. Preparation of Useful Materials from Spent Catalysts
    9.4.1. Utilization in cement industry
    9.4.2. Waster water treatment
    9.4.3. Other materials
    9.4.4. Abrasives and alloys
    9.4.5. Ceramic materials
    9.4.6. Synthetic aggregates
    9.4.7. Bricks production

    10. SPENT CATALYSTS FROM DEWAXING OPERATIONS
    10.1. Conventional Catalysts
    10.2. Dewaxing catalysts
    10.2.1. Composition of dewaxing catalysts
    10.2.2. Deactivation
    10.2.3. Environmental and safety aspects
    10.2.4. Regeneration
    10.2.5. Metal reclamation

    11. METAL RECLAMATION FROM SPENT CATALYSTS
    11.1. Laboratory Studies on Metal Reclamation from Spent Hydroprocessing Catalysts
    11.1.1. Leaching studies
    11.1.1.1. Leaching with ammonia and ammonium salts solution
    11.1.1.2. Leaching with acids
    11.1.1.3. Inorganic acids
    11.1.1.4. Organic acids
    11.1.1.5. Alkali leaching 
    11.1.1.6. Two-stage leaching
    11.1.1.7. Bio-leaching
    11.1.2. Roasting with Alkali Compounds
    11.1.2.1. Roasting with sodium salts
    11.1.2.2. Roasting with potassium salts
    11.1.3. Chlorination
    11.1.4. Metal recovery by carbothermic treatment
    11.1.5. Metal recovery using electrolytic cells
    11.1.6. Metal recovery by applying thermal plasma
    11.1.7. Summary of laboratory studies
    11.2. Separation of Metals from Solutions
    11.3. Commercial Processes
    11.3.1. Gulf Chemical & Metallurgical Process
    11.3.2. CRI-MET Process
    11.3.3. EURECAT  Process
    11.3.4. Taiyo Koko Company Process
    11.3.5. Full Yield Industry Process
    11.3.6. Moxba-Metrex Process
    11.3.7. Quanzhuo Jing-Tai Industry Process
    11.3.8. Metallurg Vanadium Process
    11.3.9. German Process
    11.3.10. NIPPON Catalyst Cycle Process
    12. MARKETS AND PRICE TRENDS FOR METALS IN SPENT HYDROPROCESSING CATALYSTS
    12.1. Molybdenum
    12.2. Tungsten
    12.3. Nickel
    12.4. Cobalt
    12.5. Vanadium
    12.6. Alumina

    13. FUTURE  PERSPECTIVES

    14. REFERENCES

     

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