Handbook of Semiconductor Silicon Technology


  • William C. O'Mara
  • Robert B. Haber
  • Lee P. Hunt

This handbook is a comprehensive summary of the science, technology and manufacturing of semiconductor silicon materials. Every known property of silicon is detailed. A complete set of binary phase diagrams is included. Practical aspects such as materials handling, safety, impurity and defect reduction are also discussed in depth.Fundamentals in the areas of silicon precursor compounds, polysilicon, silicon crystal growth, wafer fabrication, epitaxial and CVD deposition are addressed by experts in these fields. Materials properties covered include electrical, optical and mechanical properties, deep level impurities and carrier lifetime, and thermochemistry, as well as specific sections on oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen impurities. The book contains an extensive set of references, tables of materials constants, and silicon properties, and a presentation on the state of the art of materials manufacturing.
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Engineers and technologists in the semiconductor, optoelectronic, optics, cutting tool, refractory fibers, filter and other industries.


Book information

  • Published: December 1990
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1237-0


"...comprehensive, up-to-date book..." - SAMPE Journal

Table of Contents

1. Silicon Precursors: Their Manufacture and Properties 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Precursor Manufacture 1.3 Physical Properties and Critical Constants 1.4 Safety Appendix References2. Polysilicon Preparation 2.1 The Technical History of Polycrystalline Silicon 2.2 Polysilicon Production Technology (Most Practiced) 2.3 Alternative Chlorine-Based, Semiconductor-Grade Polysilicon Feedstocks 2.4 Alternate Polysilicon Reactor Selections 2.5 Evaluation of Semiconductor-Grade Polysilicon 2.6 Future of Polysilicon References3. Crystal Growth of Silicon 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Melt Growth Theory 3.3 Practical Aspect of Cz Crystal Growth 3.4 Novel Czochralski Crystal Growth 3.5 Trends in Silicon Crystal Growth 3.6 Summary and Conclusion References4. Silicon Wafer Preparation 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Crystal Shaping 4.3 Wafering 4.4 Edge Contouring 4.5 Lapping 4.6 Polishing 4.7 Cleaning 4.8 Miscellaneous Operations 4.9 In-Process Measurements 4.10 Discussion References5. Silicon Epitaxy 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Techniques for Silicon Epitaxy 5.3 Surface Preparation for Silicon Epitaxial Growth 5.4 Growth of Silicon Epitaxy by CVD 5.5 Dopant Incorporation 5.6 Surface Morphology and Epitaxial Defects 5.7 Pattern Shift and Distortion 5.8 Equipment for Epitaxy by CVD 5.9 Trends for the Future in Silicon Epitaxy References6. Silicon Material Properties 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Crystallographic Properties 6.3 Electrical Properties 6.4 Optical Properties 6.5 Thermal and Mechanical Properties References7. Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen in Silicon 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Properties of Dissolved Oxygen in Silicon 7.3 Oxygen Cluster and Precipitate Formation 7.4 Quantitative and Qualitative Measurement of Oxygen 7.5 Oxygen Thermal Donor 7.6 Mechanical Strengthening and Wafer Warpage 7.7 Device Processing 7.8 Carbon in Silicon 7.9 Nitrogen in Silicon References8. Carrier Lifetimes in Silicon 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Defects 8.3 Recombination Lifetime 8.4 Generation Lifetime 8.5 The Role of Lifetime on Device Currents 8.6 Lifetime Measurement Techniques 8.7 Summary References List of Symbols9. Preparation and Properties of Polycrystalline-Silicon Films 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Deposition 9.3 Structure 9.4 Oxidation 9.5 Conduction 9.6 Applications References10. Silicon Phase Diagrams 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Phase Diagrams 10.3 Phase Changes 10.4 Techniques for Determination of Phase Diagrams 10.5 Segregation Coefficient and Zone Refining 10.6 Retrograde Solubility 10.7 Silicon Phase Diagrams References Index