Handbook of Plasma Processing Technology

Fundamental, Etching, Deposition and Surface Interactions


  • Stephen M. Rossnagel
  • William D. Westwood
  • Jerome J. Haber

This is a comprehensive overview of the technology of plasma-based processing, written by an outstanding group of 29 contributors.
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Scientists, engineers, graduate students in the fields of semiconductors, thin films, energy, environment, automotive, medical and food packaging.


Book information

  • Published: December 1990
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1220-2


"The text provides and excellent reference for plasma processing." - SAMPE Journal

Table of Contents

1. Techniques for IC ProcessingDavid B. Fraser and William D. Westwood 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Plasma Processing in Microelectronics 1.3 Summary2. Introduction to Plasma Concepts and Discharge ConfigurationsJoseph L. Cecci 2.1 Introduction2.2 Fundamental Plasma Discharge Concepts2.3 Electron Heating and Energy Distribution2.4 Breakdown2.5 Glow Discharges2.6 References3. Fundamentals of Sputtering and ReflectionDavid N. Ruzic3.1 Introduction3.2 Modeling3.3 Experimental Yields3.4 Exceptions3.5 References4. Bombardment-Induced Compositional Changes with Alloys, Oxides, Oxysalts, and HalidesRoger Kelly4.1 Introduction4.2 The Role of the Surface Binding Energy4.3 The Role of Segregation4.4 The Role of Bombardment Induced Decomposition4.5 Overview4.6 References5. RF Diode Sputter Etching and DepositionJoseph S. Logan5.1 Introduction5.2 RF Discharges5.3 Equipment5.4 RF Sputter-Deposition5.5 Sputter Etching Applications5.6 Practical Matters5.7 References6. Magnetron Plasma Deposition ProcessesStephen M. Rossnagel6.1 Introduction6.2 Experiments6.3 Summary6.4 References7. Broad-Beam Ion SourceHarold R. Kaufman and Raymond S. Robinson7.1 Introduction7.2 Gridded Ion Sources7.3 Gridless Ion Sources7.4 Concluding Remarks7.5 References8. Reactive Ion EtchingGottlieb S. Oehrlein8.1 Introduction8.2 Etch Directionality8.3 Plasma Chemical Considerations8.4 Etch Selectivity8.5 Contamination and Damage Issues8.6 Reactor, Equipment Considerations8.7 End Point Detection and Plasma Diagnostics8.8 Current Trends8.9 References9. Reactive Sputter DepositionWilliam D. Westwood9.1 Introduction9.2 Plasma Based Sputtering Techniques: Hysteresis Effects9.3 Reaction Kinetics: Models9.4 Sputtered Species9.5 Plasma Based Sputtering Systems9.6 Reactive Sputter Deposition with Ion Beams9.7 Conclusions9.8 References10. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films for MicroelectronicsRafael Reif10.1 Introduction10.2 Nonequilibrium Glow Discharges10.3 Potentials in RF Glow Discharges10.4 Qualitative Model for PECVD10.5 Commercial PECVD Systems10.6 PECVD of Dielectric Films10.7 PECVD of Polycrystalline Silicon Films10.8 PECVD of Epitaxial Films10.9 PECVD of Refractory Metals and their Silicides10.10 PECVD of Diamond Films10.11 Other Plasma Deposition Configurations10.12 Summary10.13 References11. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Microwave Discharges for Etching and Thin Film DepositionJes Asmussen11.1 Introduction11.2 Energy Coupling and Power Balance in Steady State Microwave Discharges11.3 Microwave Energy Coupling vs. Pressure in a Uniform Magnetic Field Gradient11.4 Microwave Energy Coupling in a Nonuniform Static Magnetic Field11.5 Microwave System Considerations11.6 Fundamental ECR Applicator Configurations11.7 Microwave Plasma Processing Reactors11.8 Discharge Characteristics11.9 Discussion11.10 References12. Hollow Cathode Etching and DepositionChris M. Horwitz12.1 Introduction12.2 Discharge Confinement Effects12.3 Etched Sidewall Angle Control12.4 Etching Performance12.5 Si Deposition Performance12.6 Conclusions12.7 References13. Ion PlatingDonald M. Mattox13.1 Introduction13.2 Processing Plasma Environment13.3 Bombardment Effects on Surfaces and Film Growth13.4 Vaporization Sources for Ion Plating13.5 Bombardment Effects on Film Properties13.6 Problem Areas13.7 Applications13.8 Summary13.9 References14. Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) Deposition TechniquesIsao Yamada14.1 Introduction14.2 Experimental Techniques14.3 Film Deposition with ICB14.4 Summary14.5 References15. The Activated Reactive Evaporation (ARE) ProcessChandra V. Deshpandey and Rointan F. Bunshah15.1 Introduction15.2 Evaporation Processes for the Deposition of Compound Films15.3 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Factors in Reactive Evaporation Process15.4 Role of Plasma in Evaporation Based Processes15.5 Implementation of the Activated Reactive Evaporation Process15.6 Recent Developments in the ARE Process15.7 Structure and Properties of the Films15.8 Materials Synthesized Using the ARE Process15.9 Future Outlook and Perspectives15.10 Conclusions15.11 References16. Formation of Thim Films by Remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (Remote PECVD)Gerold Locovsky, David V. Tsu, and Robert J. Markunas16.1 Introduction16.2 Background û CVD Processes16.3 The Remote CVD Deposition Process16.4 Chemical Reaction Pathways in the Remote PECVD Process16.5 Selected Bulk Properties of Deposited Thin Films16.6 Remote PECVD Dielectric Films in Device Structures16.7 Recent Developments in Remote PECVD16.8 Summary16.9 References17. Selective Bias Sputter DepositionSoren Berg and Claes Nender17.1 Introduction17.2 Substrate Dependent Bias Sputter Deposition17.3 Deposition-Etching Balance in Bias Sputtering17.4 Sputtering Yield Values at the Film-Substrate Interface17.5 Selective Bias Sputter Deposition17.6 Selective Bias Sputter Etching17.7 The Self-Limiting Etch Depth Technique17.8 Conclusions17.9 References18. Vacuum Arc-Based ProcessingDavid Sanders18.1 Introduction18.2 Categories of Vacuum Arcs18.3 Source Design Considerations18.4 Coatings from Arcs (Structures and Properties)18.5 Applications and Opportunities18.6 Gaps in Understanding18.7 Conclusion18.8 References19. Ion Source Interactions: General UnderstandingsRussell Messier, Joseph E. Yehoda, and Lawrence J. Pilione19.1 Introduction19.2 Preparation-Ion Bombardment Relations19.3 Ion Bombardment-Property Relations19.4 Ion Bombardment-Structure Relations19.5 The Interaction of Ions with the Growing Film19.6 Conclusions19.7 References20. Ion Assisted DepositionJames J. McNally20.1 Introduction20.2 Background20.3 Experimental Apparatus20.4 Properties of IAD Films20.5 Properties of Dual IBS Films20.6 Advantages and Limitations20.7 Conclusion20.8 References21. Microstructural Control of Plasma-Sputtered Refractory CoatingsDavid W. Hoffman and Robert C. McCune21.1 Introduction21.2 Bias Sputtering21.3 Coincidental Control of Coatings Deposited by Plasma Sputtering21.4 Modelling of Matter-Energy Co-Deposition in Refractory Coatings21.5 References