Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) ProcessingBy
- Donald M. Mattox, Technical Director, Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM, USA
This book covers all aspects of physical vapor deposition (PVD) process technology from the characterizing and preparing the substrate material, through deposition processing and film characterization, to post-deposition processing. The emphasis of the book is on the aspects of the process flow that are critical to economical deposition of films that can meet the required performance specifications. The book covers subjects seldom treated in the literature: substrate characterization, adhesion, cleaning and the processing. The book also covers the widely discussed subjects of vacuum technology and the fundamentals of individual deposition processes. However, the author uniquely relates these topics to the practical issues that arise in PVD processing, such as contamination control and film growth effects, which are also rarely discussed in the literature. In bringing these subjects together in one book, the reader can understand the interrelationship between various aspects of the film deposition processing and the resulting film properties. The author draws upon his long experience with developing PVD processes and troubleshooting the processes in the manufacturing environment, to provide useful hints for not only avoiding problems, but also for solving problems when they arise. He uses actual experiences, called ""war stories"", to emphasize certain points. Special formatting of the text allows a reader who is already knowledgeable in the subject to scan through a section and find discussions that are of particular interest. The author has tried to make the subject index as useful as possible so that the reader can rapidly go to sections of particular interest. Extensive references allow the reader to pursue subjects in greater detail if desired.The book is intended to be both an introduction for those who are new to the field and a valuable resource to those already in the field. The discussion of transferring technology between R&D and manufacturing provided in Appendix 1, will be of special interest to the manager or engineer responsible for moving a PVD product and process from R&D into production. Appendix 2 has an extensive listing of periodical publications and professional societies that relate to PVD processing. The extensive Glossary of Terms and Acronyms provided in Appendix 3 will be of particular use to students and to those not fully conversant with the terminology of PVD processing or with the English language.
Engineers, including surface engineering personnel, technicians, and other plant personnel in process industries such as semiconductors and microelectronics. Especially informative for those new to the field.
Published: December 1998
Imprint: William Andrew
If you are new to PVD as I am, you will find this book to be well worth the money. - Amazon.com Review
- 1. Introduction 1.1 Surface Engineering 1.2 Thin Film Processing 1.3 Process Documentation 1.4 Safety and Environmental Concerns 1.5 Units 1.6 Summary2. Substrate (""Real"") Surfaces and Surface Modification 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Materials and Fabrication 2.3 Atomic Structure and Atom-Particle Interactions 2.4 Characterization of Surfaces and Near-Surface Regions 2.5 Bulk Properties 2.6 Modification of Substrate Surfaces 2.7 Summary 3. The Low-Pressure Gas and Vacuum Processing Environment 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Gases and Vapors 3.3 Gas-Surface Interactions 3.4 Vacuum Environment 3.5 Vacuum Processing Systems 3.6 Vacuum Pumping 3.7 Vacuum and Plasma Compatible Materials 3.8 Assembly 3.9 Evaluating Vacuum System Performance 3.10 Purchasing a Vacuum System for PVD Processing 3.11 Cleaning of Vacuum Surfaces 3.12 System-Related Contamination 3.13 Process-Related Contamination 3.14 Treatment of Specific Materials 3.15 Safety Aspects of Vacuum Technology 3.16 Summary4. The Low-Pressure Plasma Processing Environment 4.1 Introduction 4.2 The Plasma 4.3 Plasma-Surface Interactions 4.4 Configurations for Generating Plasmas 4.5 Ion and Plasma Sources 4.6 Plasma Processing Systems 4.7 Plasma-Related Contamination 4.8 Some Safety Aspects of Plasma Processing 4.9 Summary5. Vacuum Evaporation and Vacuum Deposition 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Thermal Vaporization 5.3 Thermal Vaporization Sources 5.4 Transport of Vaporized Material 5.5 Condensation of Vaporized Material 5.6 Materials for Evaporation 5.7 Vacuum Deposition Configurations 5.8 Process Monitoring and Control 5.9 Contamination from the Vaporization Source 5.10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Vacuum Deposition 5.11 Some Applications of Vacuum Deposition 5.12 Gas Evaporation and Ultrafine Particles 5.13 Other Processes 5.14 Summary6. Physical Sputtering and Sputter Deposition (Sputtering) 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Physical Sputtering 6.3 Sputtering Configurations 6.4 Transport of the Sputter-Vaporized Species 6.5 Condensation of the Sputtered Species 6.6 Sputter Deposition Geometrics 6.7 Targets and Target Materials 6.8 Process Monitoring and Control 6.9 Contamination Due to Sputtering 6.10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sputter Deposition 6.11 Some Applications of Sputter Deposition 6.12 Summary 7. Arc Vapor Deposition 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Arcs 7.3 Arc Source Configurations 7.4 Reactive Arc Deposition 7.5 Arc Materials 7.6 Arc Vapor Deposition System 7.7 Process Monitoring and Control 7.8 Contamination Due to Arc Vaporization 7.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Arc Vapor Deposition 7.10 Some Applications of Arc Vapor Deposition 7.11 Summary8. Ion Plating and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Stages of Ion Plating 8.3 Sources of Depositing and Reacting Species 8.4 Sources of Energetic Bombarding Species 8.5 Sources of Accelerating Potential 8.6 Some Plasma-Based Ion Plating Configurations 8.7 Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) 8.8 Process Monitoring and Control 8.9 Contamination on the Ion Plating Process 8.10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Ion Plating 8.11 Some Applications of Ion Plating 8.12 A Note on Ionized Cluster Beam (ICB) Deposition 8.13 Summary9. Atomistic Film Growth and Some Growth-Related Film Properties 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Condensation and Nucleation 9.3 Interface Formation 9.4 Film Growth 9.5 Reactive and Quasi-Reactive Deposition of Films of Compounded Materials 9.6 Post Deposition Processing and Changes 9.7 Deposition of Unique Materials and Structures 9.8 Summary10. Film Characterization and Some Basic Film Properties 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Objectives of Characterization 10.3 Types of Characterization 10.4 Stages and Degree of Characterization 10.5 Some Film Properties 10.6 Summary11. Adhesion and Deadhesion 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Origin of Adhesion and Adhesion Failure (Deadhesion) 11.3 Adhesion of Atomistically Deposited Inorganic Films 11.4 Adhesion Failure (Deadhesion) 11.5 Adhesion Testing 11.6 Designing for Good Adhesion 11.7 Failure Analysis 11.8 Summary12. Cleaning 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Gross Cleaning 12.3 Specific Cleaning 12.4 Application of Fluids 12.5 Removal of Particulate Contamination 12.6 Rinsing 12.7 Drying, Outgassing, and Outdiffusion 12.8 Cleaning Lines 12.9 Handling and Storage/Transportation 12.10 Evaluation and Monitoring of Cleaning 12.11 In Situ Cleaning 12.12 Contamination of the Film Surface 12.13 Safety 12.14 Summary13. External Processing Environment 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Reduction of Contamination 13.3 Materials 13.4 Body Coverings 13.5 Processing Areas 13.6 SummaryAPPENDIX 1: Reference Material APPENDIX 2: Transfer of Technology from R&D to Manufacturing Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Used in Surface Engineering