Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride


  • Donald Garrett, Saline Processors, Inc., Ojai, California, U.S.A.

This book is concerned with two major industrial minerals: Lithium and Calcium Chloride. The geology of their deposits is first reviewed, along with discussions of most of the major deposits and theories of their origin. The commercial mining and processing plants are next described, followed by a review of the rather extensive literature on other proposed processing methods. The more important uses for lithium and calcium chloride are next covered, along with their environmental considerations. This is followed by a brief review of the production statistics for each industry, and some of their compounds' phase data and physical properties.
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Chemical engineers, metallurgical engineers and geologists working in academia and industry, and private scientists and consultants.


Book information

  • Published: April 2004
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-276152-2


&qu: "...a useful reference for anybody wanting to understand more about the properties, occurrences, geology and processing of both calcium chloride and lithium. In particular, the book would be of interest to anybody wishing to understand how physical properties, geology and processing all influence each other. The book also comes with a lengthy reference section." &source: Industrial Minerals (May 2005)

Table of Contents

Part 1. LITHIUMGEOLOGY Brine Deposits Clayton Valley (Silver Peak), Nevada Salar de Atacama, Chile Salar de Hombre Muerto, Argentina Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia Searles Lake, California Potential Deposits (Great Salt Lake, Utah; Salton Sea Geothermal Brine, California; Dead Sea, Israel and Jordan; Chinese Dry Lakes; Oil Field Waters; Others)Ore Deposits; Origin of Lithium Pegmatites Commercial Lithium Minerals (Spodumene, Petalite, Lepidolite, Amblygonite, Eucryptite) Gwalia Consolidated Ltd. (Greenbushes),Western Australia Bikita Minerals, Zimbabwe Tantalum Mining Corp., Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada North Carolina Tin-Spodumene Belt, Chemetall FMC Smaller United States Deposits Other Deposits (Canada, Brazil, Zaire, Namibia, China, Finland, Russia, Others) High-Lithium Clays (Hectorite); Other Rocks PROCESSING History of the Lithium Industry Brine Processing, Solar Ponds Clayton Valley (Silver Peak), Nevada; Chemetall Salar de Atacama, Chile; Chemetall Salar de Atacama, Chile; SQM Salar de Hombre Muerto, Argentina; FMC Searles Lake, California; American Potash & Chemical Co. Chinese LakesVarious Proposed Processing Methods (Liquid Extraction, Alumina Adsorption, Others) Ore Processing Greenbushes, Australia; Gwalia Bernic Lake, Canada; Tanco Zimbabwe; Bikita Minerals South Carolina; Chemetall (Foote) South Carolina; FMC (Lithium Corp.) American Lithium Chem.; Bikita Lepidolite Quebec Lithium Corp. Other Operations (Black Hills, South Dakota; Yichun, China; Brazil; Namibia) Various Proposed Processes Lithium Chemica1s TOXICOLOGY USES G1ass Ceramics Aluminum Batteries Grease Other Uses (Metal, Air Conditioning, Organic Compounds, Miscellaneous) INDUSTRY STATISTICS CHEMISTRY, PHASE DATA, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REFERENCES Part 2. NATURAL CALCIUM CHLORIDEGEOLOGY Calcium Chloride Dolomitization Brine Michigan, USA Various Other Dolomitization Brines Calcium Chloride in Oil and Gas Field Brines Calcium Chloride in Geothermal Brines Deep Sea Vents Red Sea Brines Inland Geothermal Brines Miscellaneous Springs Salton Sea Geothermal Brine Calcium Chloride Lakes The Dead Sea, Israel and Jordan Bristol and Cadiz Dry Lakes, California Lake Giulietti, Dallol Salt Pan, Lake Asal Qarhan Lake, China; Kazakhstan Lakes Lake Vanda and the Don Juan Pond, Antarctica Calcium Chloride Groundwater Calcium Chloride Minerals: Tachyhydrite Deposits Sergipe, Brazil Congo Thailand Other Tachyhydrite Occurrences Calcium Chloride Brine in Mineral Deposits Reaction of Calcium Chloride with Minerals Clay Minerals Soils PROCESSING Michigan Dolomitization Brines Bristol and Cadiz Lakes General Processing Technology USES OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE Deicing Dust Control, Soil Compaction Concrete, Oil and Gas Ballasting Food Processing, Industrial Drying Miscellaneous TOXICOLOGY AND SAFETY PRODUCTION STATISTICS PHASE DATA AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Phase Data Physical Properties REFERENCES