Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice book cover

Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice

Volume 2: Flotation of Gold, PGM and Oxide Minerals

Handbook of Flotation Reagents: Chemistry, Theory and Practice: Flotation of Gold, PGM and Oxide Minerals, Volume 2 focuses on the theory, practice, and chemistry of flotation of gold, platinum group minerals (PGMs), and the major oxide minerals, along with rare earths. It examines separation methods whose effectiveness is limited when using conventional treatment processes and considers commercial plant practices for most oxide minerals, such as pyrochlore-containing ores, copper cobalt ores, zinc ores, tin ores, and tantalum/niobium ores. It discusses the geology and mineralogy of gold, PGMs, and oxide minerals, as well as reagent and flotation practices in beneficiation. The book also looks at the factors affecting the floatability of gold minerals and describes PGM-dominated deposits such as Morensky-type deposits, hydrothermal deposits, and placer deposits. In addition, case studies of flotation and beneficiation in countries such as Canada, Africa, Russia, Chile, and Saudi Arabia are presented. This book will be useful to researchers, university students, and professors, as well as mineral processors faced with the problem of beneficiation of difficult-to-treat ores.

For mineral processors working in the operating plants, researchers in the mineral processing industry and university students and professors

Hardbound, 230 Pages

Published: September 2010

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53082-0


  • Introduction

    17 Flotation of Gold Ores

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Geology and General Mineralogy of Gold-Bearing Ores

    17.3 Flotation Properties of Gold Minerals and Factors Affecting Floatability

    17.4 Flotation of Low-Sulphide-Containing Gold Ores

    17.5 Flotation of Gold-Containing Mercury/Antimony Ores

    17.6 Flotation of Carbonaceous Clay-Containing Gold Ores

    17.6.1 Preflotation of carbonaceous gangue and carbon

    17.6.2 Two-stage flotation method

    17.6.3 Nitrogen atmosphere flotation method

    17.7 Flotation of Gold-Containing Copper Ores

    17.8 Flotation of Oxide Copper-Gold Ores

    17.9 Flotation of Gold-Antimony Ores

    17.10 Flotation of Arsenical Gold Ores

    17.11 Flotation of Gold From Base Metal Sulphide Ores

    17.11.1 Gold-containing lead-zinc ores

    17.11.2 Copper-zinc gold-containing ores

    17.11.3 Gold-containing copper-lead-zinc ores

    17.12 Conclusions


    18 Flotation of Platinum Group Metal Ores

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Minerals and Classification of PGM Ores

    18.3 Description of PGM-Dominated Deposits

    18.3.1 Morensky-type deposits

    18.3.2 Hydrothermal deposits

    18.3.3 Placer deposits

    18.4 Effect of Mineralogy on Recovery of Platinum Group Minerals

    18.4.1 Ores amenable to gravity preconcentration

    18.4.2 Ores amenable to flotation

    18.5 Copper-Nickel and Nickel Sulphide Deposits with PGM as a By-Product

    18.5.1 The Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada

    18.5.2 The Norilsk Talnakh ore in Russia

    18.5.3 Pechenga Cala Peninsula (USSR)

    18.5.4 Other deposits

    18.6 Chromium Deposits with PGM

    18.7 Flotation of PGM-Containing Ores

    18.7.1 Introduction

    18.7.2 Flotation properties of PGM from sulphide-dominated deposits

    18.7.3 Reagent practice in flotation of PGM sulphide-dominated ores

    18.7.4 Reagent practice in flotation of Cu-Ni and Ni ores with PGM as the by-product

    18.7.5 Reagent practice in flotation of PGM from chromium-containing ores

    18.7.6 Flotation of oxide PGM ores

    18.8 Plant Practice in Treatment of PGM Ores

    18.8.1 Flowsheets for treatment of sulphide-dominated PGM ores

    18.8.2 Flowsheets for treatment of Cu-Ni-containing PGM ores

    18.8.3 Flowsheet used for treatment of high-chromium PGM-containing ores

    18.9 Reagent Schemes Used to Treat PGM-Containing Ores


    19 Flotation of Oxide Copper and Copper Cobalt Ores

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Oxide Copper Ores and Minerals

    19.3 Flotation Properties of the Individual Copper Minerals and Mixtures

    19.4 Cobalt and Copper Cobalt Oxide Ores

    19.5 Flotation Practice in Beneficiation of Oxide Copper Minerals

    19.5.1 Sulphidization flotation method

    19.6 Industrial Practice in Flotation of Oxide Copper and Copper-Cobalt Ores

    19.6.1 Kolwezi concentrator (Kongo) - Oxide siliceous ore

    19.6.2 Industrial practice in beneficiation of dolomitic oxide ores

    19.7 Industrial Practice in Beneficiation of Mixed Sulphide Oxide Ores


    20 Flotation of Mixed Lead Zinc Sulphide Oxide and Oxide Lead and Zinc Ores

    20.1 Some Geological and Mineralogical Features of Mixed Sulphide Oxide and Oxide Lead Zinc Ores

    20.1.1 Mixed sulphide oxide lead zinc ores

    20.1.2 Oxide lead ores

    20.1.3 Zinc oxide ores

    20.2 Flotation Properties of Individual Oxide Lead Zinc Minerals of Economic Importance

    20.2.1 Oxide lead and zinc minerals of economic value

    20.2.2 Flotation properties of oxide lead minerals

    20.2.3 Flotation properties of oxide zinc minerals

    20.3 Practices in the Beneficiation of Mixed and Oxide Lead Zinc Ores

    20.3.1 Reagent scheme and plant practice for beneficiation of mixed sulphide oxide ores

    20.3.2 Practices in beneficiation of oxide zinc ores

    20.3.3 Flotation of oxide lead silver ore


    21 Flotation of Tin Minerals

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Mineral Composition of Various Tin Ores

    21.3 Brief Description of Tin Deposits

    21.4 Beneficiation of Tin Ores

    21.4.1 Gravity beneficiation method

    21.4.2 Combination of gravity-flotation tin beneficiation method (lodge deposits)

    21.4.3 Flotation

    21.5 Practices in Beneficiation of Tin-Containing Ores

    21.5.1 Factors effecting selection of treatment process

    21.5.2 Development work and operation of cassiterite flotation plants


    22 Flotation of Niobium

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 General Overview of Pyrochlore-Containing Ores

    22.3 Flotation Properties of Pyrochlore

    22.3.1 Flotation of pyrochlore from carbonatite ores

    22.3.2 Flotation of pyrochlore from pegmatitic ores

    22.4 Refractory Niobium Ores

    22.5 Plant Practices in Beneficiation of Pyrochlore Ores

    22.5.1 St. Honore Niobec operation

    22.5.2 Oka operating plant


    23 Flotation of Tantalum/Niobium Ores

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Characteristics of Ta/Nb Minerals of Economic Value

    23.3 Geological and Mineralogical Features of Ta/Nb Ores

    23.4 Flotation Characteristics of Tantalite-Columbite Minerals

    23.5 Practices in Beneficiation of Ta/Nb Ores

    23.5.1 Introduction

    23.5.2 Gravity concentration

    23.6 Flotation

    23.6.1 Background

    23.6.2 Bernic Lake Ta/Nb flotation from gravity tails

    23.6.3 Flotation of Ta/Nb from Greenbushes gravity tailing

    23.7 Beneficiation of Ta/Nb Ores Containing Zircon

    23.7.1 Development of a beneficiation process for Ta/Nb recovery from Ghurayyah ore - Saudi Arabia

    23.7.2 Beneficiation studies

    23.7.3 Separation of Ta/Nb and Zr

    23.8 Beneficiation of Ta/Nb Ore from Malawi, Africa

    23.8.1 Experimental development testwork using alternative collectors

    23.8.2 Effect of different depressant systems on Ta/Nb flotation

    23.8.3 The treatment flowsheet, reagent additions and metallurgical results

    23.9 Ta/Nb-Zr Separation from the Bulk Concentrate

    23.10 Ta/Nb Separation from Refractory Tin Gravity Intermediate Products

    23.10.1 Fe-hydroxide decoating

    23.10.2 Ta/Nb-Zr separation


    24 Flotation of REO Minerals

    24.1 Ore and Minerals Containing Rare Earth Oxide Elements (REOE)

    24.2 Flotation Properties of Cerium Group of REOE Minerals

    24.2.1 Flotation properties of monazite and bastnaesite

    24.2.2 Flotation properties of REO-containing yttrium

    24.3 Flotation Practices and Research Work on Beneficiation of REO Minerals

    24.3.1 Introduction

    24.3.2 Flotation practice in the beneficiation of bastnaesite-containing ores

    24.3.3 Flotation practices in beneficiation of monazite


    25 Flotation of Titanium Minerals

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Titanium-Bearing Ores and Minerals

    25.2.1 Ilmenite

    25.2.2 Ilmenorutile

    25.2.3 Rutile

    25.2.4 Perovskite

    25.2.5 Leucoxene

    25.3 Classification of Titanium Deposits

    25.3.1 Rock deposits

    25.3.2 Sand deposits of titanium minerals

    25.4 Flotation Properties of Major Titanium Minerals

    25.4.1 Flotation properties of ilmenite

    25.4.2 Flotation properties of rutile

    25.4.3 Flotation properties of perovskite

    25.5 Practices in Beneficiation of Titanium Ores

    25.5.1 Practices in beneficiation of ilmenite ores using flotation

    25.5.2 Beneficiation of apatite-ilmenite ores (Sept Iles Mine, Canada)

    25.5.3 Ilmenite production from heavy mineral sands and chromium problems

    25.6 Practices in Rutile Flotation

    25.6.1 Development and operation of zircon flotation at sierra rutile limited

    25.6.2 Rutile flotation from hard rock ore

    25.6.3 White Mountain titanium (Chile)




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