Handbook of Evaporation Technology


  • Paul E. Minton, Union Carbide, WV, USA

This excellent volume combines a great deal of data only previously available from many different sources into a single, informative volume. It presents evaporation technology as it exists today. Although evaporation is one of the oldest unit operations, it is also an area with dramatic changes in the last quarter century. Although other methods of separation are available, evaporation remains the best process for many applications. All factors must be evaluated in order to select the best evaporator type. This book will be extremely useful in evaluating and deciding which evaporation technology will meet a particular set of requirements.
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Chemical and biochemical engineers throughout industry.


Book information

  • Published: December 1987
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1097-0

Table of Contents

1. Introduction2. Evaporation3. What an Evaporator Does4. Evaporator Elements5. Liquid Characteristics Concentration Foaming Temperature Sensitivity Salting Scaling Fouling Corrosion Product Quality Other Fluid Properties6. Improvements in Evaporators7. Heat Transfer in Evaporators Modes of Heat Transfer Types of Heat Transfer Operations Physical Properties8. Pressure Drop in Evaporators Flow Inside Tubes Flow Across the Tube Banks9. Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms Vortex Shedding Turbulent Buffeting Fluid-Elastic Whirling Parallel Flow Eddy Formation Acoustic Vibration Recommendations Design Criteria Fixing Vibration Problems in the Field Proprietary Designs to Reduce Vibration10. Natural Circulation Calandrias Operation Surging Flow Instabilities Internal Calandrias Feed Location Summary11. Evaporator Types and Applications Jacketed Vessels Coils Horizontal Tube Evaporators Short Tube Vertical Evaporators Long Tube Vertical Evaporators Forced Circulation Evaporator Plate Evaporators Mechanically-Aided Evaporators Submerged Combustion Evaporators Flash Evaporators Special Evaporator Types12. Fouling Cost of Fouling Classification of Fouling Net Rate of Fouling Sequential Events in Fouling Precipitation Fouling Particulate Fouling Chemical Reaction Fouling Corrosion Fouling Biofouling Solidification Fouling Fouling in Evaporation Design Considerations Fouling: Philosophy of Design13. Evaporator Performance Venting Time/Temperature Relation Pressure Versus Vacuum Operation Energy Economy Steam Condensate Recovery14. Vapor-Liquid Separation Entrainment Flash Tanks Wire Mesh Separators Vane Impingement Separators Centrifugal Separators Cyclones Other Separators Comparison Solids Deposition Falling Film Evaporators Flashing Splashing Foaming15. Multiple-Effect Evaporators Forward Feed Backward Feed Mixed Feed Parallel Feed Staging Heat Recovery Systems Calculations Optimization16. Heat Pumps Conventional Heat Pump Overhead Vapor Compression Calandria Liquid Flashing17. Compression Evaporation18. Thermal Compression Thermocompressor Operation Thermocompressor Characteristics Thermocompressor Types Estimating Data Control Application19. Mechanical Vapor Compression Thermodynamics Factors Affecting Costs Compressor Selection Factors Influencing Design Drive Systems Centrifugal Compressor Characteristics System Characteristics Reliability Evaporator Design Application Summary Economics20. Desalination Startup and Operability Complexity Maintenance Energy Efficiency Capital Cost Operating Temperature Materials of Construction Pretreatment Chemicals and Auxiliary Energy21. Evaporator Accessories22. Condensers Direct Contact Condensers Surface Condensers23. Vacuum Producing Equipment Jet Ejectors Mechanical Pumps Vacuum System Reliability/Maintenance Multistage Combinations Sizing Information Estimating Energy Requirements Initial System Evacuation Control of Vacuum Systems Costs of Vacuum Systems Comparisons Energy Conservation24. Condensate Removal Liquid Level Control Steam Traps Mechanical Traps Thermostatic Traps Thermodynamic Traps Steam Trap Specification Common Trap Problems Selection of Steam Traps Installation Effect of Carbon Dioxide Steam Trap Maintenance25. Process Pumps General Types of Pump Designs Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Cavitation Principles of Pumps and Pumping Systems Avoiding Common Errors26. Process Piping Designing Drain Piping Compressible Fluids Two-Phase Flow Slurry Flow Piping Layout27. Thermal Insulation28. Pipeline and Equipment Heat Tracing29. Process Vessels30. Refrigeration Mechanical Refrigeration Steam Jet Refrigeration Absorption Refrigeration31. Control Manual Control Evaporator Control Systems Control of Evaporators Auto-Select Control System Product Concentration Condenser Control Calandria Control Evaporator Base Sections and Accumulators Guidelines for Instruments Process Computers32. Thermal Design Considerations Tube Size and Arrangement Extended Surfaces Shellside Impingement Protection Flow Distribution33. Installation Venting Siphons in Cooling Water Piping U-Bend Exchangers Equipment Layout Piping34. Design Practices for Maintenance Standard Practices Repair Features Chemical Cleaning Equipment Mechanical Cleaning Equipment Backwashing Air Injection35. Mechanical Design Maximum Allowable Working Pressure and Temperature Upset Conditions Thermal Expansion Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints Double Tubesheets Inspection Techniques36. Safety Common Errors Safety Relief37. Materials of Construction Basic Questions Selection38. Testing Evaporators Planning the Test Causes of Poor Performance39. Troubleshooting Calandrias Condensers Vacuum Fails to Build No Vacuum in Steam Chest Vacuum Builds Slowly Foaming Inadequate Circulation Sudden Loss of Vacuum Vacuum Fluctuates Water Surge in Tail Pipe Barometric Condenser Flooding40. Upgrading Existing Evaporators Areas for Upgrading Existing Evaporators Economic Effects of Improvements Guidelines for Upgrading Program41. Energy Conservation42. Specifying Evaporators Comparing Vendors' Offerings43. New Technology44. Nomenclature Greek Subscripts Bibliography Index