Handbook of Contamination Control in Microelectronics

Principles, Applications and Technology


  • Donald L. Tolliver

This book introduces contamination control in a comprehensive manner. It covers the basics for the beginner, and delves in depth into the more critical issues of process engineering and circuit manufacturing for the more advanced reader. The reader will begin to see how the puzzle of contamination control comes together and to focus on the fundamentals required for excellence in modern semiconductor manufacturing. What makes the area of contamination control unique is its ubiquitous nature, across all facets of semiconductor manufacturing. Clean room technology, well recognized as a fundamental requirement in modern day circuit manufacturing, barely scratches the surface in total contamination control. This handbook defines and describes most of the major categories in current contamination control technology.
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Engineers, scientists and managers in the semiconductor and microelectronics industries concerned with preventing and controlling contamination.


Book information

  • Published: December 1988
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1151-9


"àshould be in the library of all microelectronics engineers and designers." - Microelectronics & Reliability

Table of Contents

1. Aerosol Filtration Technology Introduction Filtration Fundamentals Filter Testing Fundamentals Filter Applications Summary References2. Instrumentation for Aerosol Measurement Introduction Size Distribution of Aerosols Particle Deposition on Surfaces Instrumentation for Aerosol Measurement Aerosol Sampling Instruments Monodisperse Aerosol Generators Performance of HEPA and ULPA Filters References Bibliography3. Clean Room Garments and Fabrics Introduction Clean Room Garment Design/Styles Clean Room Garment Construction Clean Room Fabrics Clean Room Garment Life Guidelines for Clean Room Garments Clean Room Garment Sterilization Conclusion4. Guidelines for Clean Room Management and Discipline Introduction Clean Room Criteria Personnel Disciplines Clean Room Garments Clean Room Supplies Housekeeping Maintenance Facility Start-Up Procedures Equipment Installation and Repair-Existing Facility Contamination Control Monitoring The Future References Bibliography5. Electrostatics in Clean Rooms Introduction Eliminating Static Charge Air Ionization Ion Generation Total Room Ionization Desiccator Cabinets Blow Off Guns Grounding Surface Resistivity Protective Packaging Measuring and Testing Methods Bibliography6. Ultra High Purity Water-New Frontiers Pure Water and the Semiconductor Industry Pure Water Technology Requirements for Improved Water The Double Pass Reverse Osmosis System The Demand for Continued Improvements Using RO Up Front The Upstream Requirements for Deionization A Triple Membrane Five Step Concept The New Concept in Pure Water System Suppliers for High Purity water A ""Me Too"" Industry Summary7. Deionized (DI) Water Filtration Technology Introduction Deonized Water Filtration Equipment Systems Integration and Process Consideration References8. Monitoring System for Semiconductor Fluids Historical Perspective Survey of Measured Levels of Microcontamination in Semiconductor Process Liquids Material Problems in Liquid Media Sampling Methodologies Overview of Measurement Methods Detailed Description of Light Scattering Response for Liquid Suspended Particles Defining the Lower Limit of Particle Size Using Laser Light Scattering Description of Instruments Application Problem Areas References9. Particles in Ultrapure Process Gases Introduction Particle Sources and Formation Mechanisms Selection Criteria for On-Line Particle Analysis Equipment Light-Scattering Particle Counters Condensation Nuclei Counters On-Line Measurement of Particle Sizes in Very Clean Gases-A Synopsis Particle Sampling Particle Sampling for Off-Line Analysis Removal of Particles from Compressed Gases by Filtration References10. Contamination Control and Concerns in VLSI Lithography Introduction Photoresist: What Is It? Primers Photoresist Functional Requirements Photoresist Contamination Concerns Contamination Control in Photoresist Processing Summary and Conclusions11. Contamination Control in Electronic Chemicals Defining Contamination Measuring the Contamination Controlling the Contamination in Chemicals Conclusion12. Surface Particle Detection Technology Introduction Inspection Methods for Particles on Planar Surfaces Inspection Methods for Particles on Patterned Surfaces References13. Particle Contamination by Process Equipment Introduction Particles per Wafer per Pass (PWP) Use of Statistics Experiment Structures for Measuring Equipment Contamination Design of Experiments Calibration Measurement Planning Specification Standard The Future References14. Wafer Automation and Transfer System Introduction The Need for Automation Individual Wafer Handling Interequipment Wafer-Cassette Transport Automated Facilities Conclusion References Glossary Index