Handbook of Compound Semiconductors
Growth, Processing, Characterization, and DevicesBy
- Paul H. Holloway
- Gary E. McGuire
This book reviews the recent advances and current technologies used to produce microelectronic and optoelectronic devices from compound semiconductors. It provides a complete overview of the technologies necessary to grow bulk single-crystal substrates, grow hetero-or homoepitaxial films, and process advanced devices such as HBT's, QW diode lasers, etc.
Scientists, researchers, and technicians in the microelectronic and optoelectronic industries.
Published: December 1996
Imprint: William Andrew
- 1. Bulk Crystal Growth Introduction 1.0 Reduction of Dislocation Density 2.0 HB GaAs 3.0 LEC GaAs 4.0 InP 5.0 Summary References2. MOCVD of Compound Semiconductor Layers 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Growth Process 3.0 Specific Material Systems 4.0 Summary and Future Directions Acknowledgment References3. Molecular Beam Epitaxy 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Important Features of MBE 3.0 MBE System Configuration 4.0 The Growth Chamber Components 5.0 Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) 6.0 Mass Spectrometry 7.0 In-Situ Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) 8.0 Optical Methods for Real-Time Growth Monitoring 9.0 Growth of III-V Compounds 10.0 Post-Growth Characterization 11.0 Building Blocks of Modern Devices: Bandgap Engineering in III-V Structures 12.0 Epilogue Acknowledgments References4. Physical and Chemical Deposition of Metals as Ohmic Contacts to InP and Related Materials 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Fundamentals Ohmic Contacts 3.0 Design Concepts of Processing Ohmic Contact to InP 4.0 Ohmic Contact Processing Technology 5.0 Conclusions Acknowledgments References5. Surface Processing of III-V Semiconductors 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Reactions on Cleaved (110) Surfaces 3.0 Effects of Air-Formed Contamination on Interface Characteristics 4.0 Contamination Removal 5.0 Surface Passivation 6.0 Applications 7.0 Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgments References6. Ion Implantation Induced Extended Defects in GaAs 1.0 Type I Defects 2.0 Type II Defects 3.0 Type III Defects 4.0 Type IV Defects 5.0 Type V Defects 6.0 Conclusions References7. Passivation of GaAs and InP 1.0 Surface Defects, Fermi-Level Pinning, and Defect Models 2.0 Native Oxides 3.0 Hydrogen and Nitrogen 4.0 Sulfur 5.0 Selenium 6.0 Silicon 7.0 Epitaxial Regrowth 8.0 Epilogue Acknowledgments References8. Wet and Dry Etching of Compound Semiconductors 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Wet Chemical Etching 3.0 Plasma Etching 4.0 Conclusion Acknowledgments References9. Rapid Isothermal Processing (RIP) 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Why Rapid Isothermal Processing? 3.0 History of Rapid Isothermal Processing 4.0 Scope of Rapid Isothermal Processing 5.0 Principles of Rapid Isothermal Processing 6.0 Experimental Results in Support of Photoeffects in RIP 7.0 Design of Equipment and Engineering Issues 8.0 Various Applications of RIP 9.0 Results of Various Devices and Circuits 10.0 Future Applications 11.0 Conclusion Acknowledgment References10. Epitaxial Lift-Off for Thin Film Compound Semiconductor Devices 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Thin Film Device Formation and Bonding 3.0 Characterization of ELO Thin Films 4.0 New Thin Film Characterization Techniques and Devices 5.0 New Integration Formulations Using Thin Films 6.0 Conclusions References11. Packaging 1.0 Introduction 2.0 III-V Optoelectronic Device Packages 3.0 Multichannel Device Packages for Optical Interconnect Applications 4.0 High Frequency GaAs Digital and Microwave Integrated Circuit Packages 5.0 Conclusions References12. Chemical, Structural and Electronic Characterization of Compound Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Diffraction Techniques 1.0 Introduction 2.0 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Diffraction 3.0 Chemistry of Surface and Interface Formation 4.0 Determination of Electronic Energy Levels at Compound Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces by XPS 5.0 Structure of the Near-Surface Region by XPD 6.0 Conclusions Acknowledgment References13. Characterization of Compound Semiconductor Material by Ion Beams 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Rutherford Backscatterring Spectrometry (RBS) 3.0 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Related Techniques 4.0 Summary References14. Optical Characterization of Compound Semiconductors 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Experimental Techniques and Instrumentation 3.0 Basic Theory and Approaches 4.0 Applications 5.0 Summary Acknowledgments List of Acronyms References15. Gallium Arsenide Microelectronic Devices and Circuits 1.0 A Brief Historical Perspective 2.0 Gallium Arsenide Crystals 3.0 Gallium Arsenide Devices and Structures 4.0 GaAs MESFET IC Fabrication Technology 5.0 Applications of GaAs MESFET ICs References16. Optoelectronic Devices 1.0 Introduction 2.0 The Solid State Laser 3.0 Modulators and Switches 4.0 Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits (OEICs) Acknowledgments References Index