Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition

Principles, Technology and Applications

By

  • Hugh O. Pierson, Sandia National Laboratories (retired)

Handbook of Chemical Vapor Deposition: Principles, Technology and Applications provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of chemical vapor deposition. This book discusses the applications of chemical vapor deposition, which is a relatively flexible technology that can accommodate many variations.Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the theoretical examination of the chemical vapor deposition process. This text then describes the major chemical reactions and reviews the chemical vapor deposition systems and equipment used in research and production. Other chapters consider the materials deposited by chemical vapor deposition. This book discusses as well the potential applications of chemical vapor deposition in semiconductors and electronics. The final chapter deals with ion implantation as a major process in the fabrication of semiconductors.This book is a valuable resource for scientists, engineers, and students. Production and marketing managers and suppliers of equipment, materials, and services will also find this book useful.
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Book information

  • Published: January 1999
  • Imprint: WILLIAM ANDREW
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1300-1


Table of Contents


1. Introduction and General Considerations

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Historical Perspective

3.0 The Applications of CVD

4.0 CVD Coatings

4.1 Composite Nature of Coatings

4.2 Major Coating Processes

5.0 Profile of the CVD Industry

6.0 Trends in CVD

7.0 Book Objectives

References

2. Fundamentals of Chemical Vapor Deposition

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Thermodynamics of CVD

2.1 ΔG Calculations and Reaction Feasibility

2.2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Computer Programs

3.0 Kinetics and Mass Transport Mechanisms

3.1 Deposition Sequence

3.2 Deposition in a CVD Flow Reactor

3.3 Rate Limiting Steps

3.4 Mathematical Expressions of the Kinetics of CVD

4.0 Growth Mechanism and Structure of Deposit

4.1 Deposition Mechanism and Epitaxy

4.2 Structure and Morphology of CVD Materials

4.3 The Control of CVD Microstructure

References

3. The Chemistry of CVD

1.0 Categories of CVD Reactions

1.1 Thermal Decomposition (or Pyrolysis) Reactions

1.2 Hydrogen Reduction

1.3 Coreduction

1.4 Metal Reduction of the Halides

1.5 Oxidation and Hydrolysis Reactions

1.6 Reactions to Form Carbides and Nitrides

2.0 CVD Precursors

3.0 Halides

3.1 Halogens

3.2 Halide Formation or Halogenation

3.3 Halide Properties

4.0 Metal Carbonyls

4.1 Characteristics of the Carbonyls

4.2 Carbonyl Preparation

4.3 Metal Carbonyl Complexes

5.0 Metallo-Organic Precursors

5.1 Alkyls

5.2 Acetylacetonates

6.0 Hydrides

References

4. CVD Processes and Equipment

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Open and Closed Reactor Systems

3.0 Reactant Supply

3.1 Reactant Transport

3.2 Reactant Purity and Contamination

4.0 Thermal CVD: Deposition System and Reactor

4.1 Heating Methods

4.2 Atmospheric and Low Pressure Reactors

5.0 Exhaust and By-Product Disposal

6.0 Plasma CVD

6.1 Principles of Plasma Deposition

6.2 Characteristics of the Plasma CVD Process

6.3 Materials Deposited by Plasma CVD

6.4 Plasma CVD Equipment

7.0 Laser and Photo CVD

7.1 Laser CVD

7.2 Photo CVD

8.0 Metallo-Organic CVD (MOCVD)

9.0 Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI)

10.0 Fluidized-Bed CVD

References

5. The CVD of Metals

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Aluminum

2.1 CVD Reactions

2.2 Applications

3.0 Beryllium

3.1 CVD Reactions

3.2 Applications

4.0 Cadmium

4.1 CVD Reactions

5.0 Chromium

5.1 CVD Reactions

5.2 Applications

6.0 Copper

6.1 CVD Reactions

6.2 Applications

7.0 Gold

7.1 CVD Reactions

7.2 Applications

8.0 Iridium

8.1 CVD Reactions

8.2 Applications

9.0 Iron

9.1 CVD Reaction

9.2 Applications

10.0 Molybdenum

10.1 CVD Reactions

10.2 Application

11.0 Nickel

11.1 CVD Reactions

11.2 Applications

12.0 Niobium (Colombium)

12.1 CVD Reactions

12.2 Applications

13.0 Platinum

13.1 CVD Reactions

13.2 Applications

14.0 Rhenium

14.1 CVD Reactions

14.2 Applications

15.0 Rhodium and Ruthenium

15.1 CVD Reactions

15.2 Applications

16.0 Tantalum

16.1 CVD Reactions

16.2 Applications

17.0 Tin

18.0 Titanium

18.1 CVD Reactions

18.2 Applications

19.0 Tungsten

19.1 CVD Reactions

19.2 Applications

20.0 Intermetallics

20.1 Titanium Aluminides

20.2 Ferro Nickel

20.3 Nickel-Chromium

20.4 Tungsten-Thorium

20.5 Niobium-Germanium

References

6. The CVD of Non-Metallic Elements and Semiconductors

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Boron

2.1 CVD Reactions

2.2 Applications

3.0 Carbon and Graphite

3.1 Structure of Carbon and Graphite

3.2 Properties of CVD Graphite

3.3 The CVD of Graphite

3.4 Applications of CVD Graphite

4.0 Diamond and Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC)

4.1 Characteristics and Properties of Diamond and DLC

4.2 The CVD of Diamond

4.3 CVD Processes for Diamond

4.4 The CVD of DLC

4.5 Applications of Diamond and DLC

5.0 Silicon

5.1 Properties

5.2 CVD Reactions

5.3 Applications of CVD Silicon

6.0 Germanium

6.1 Properties

6.2 CVD Reactions

6.3 Applications

7.0 The CVD of III-V and II-VI Compounds

7.1 The III-V Compounds

7.2 The II-VI Compounds

7.3 Applications of III-V and II-VI Compounds

References

7. The CVD of Ceramic Materials

1.0 Introduction

2.0 The CVD of Borides

2.1 General Characteristics and Properties

2.2 Boriding

2.3 Direct Boride Deposition

2.4 Applications

3.0 The CVD of Carbides

3.1 Boron Carbide (B4C)

3.2 Chromium Carbide

3.3 Hafnium Carbide

3.4 Niobium Carbide

3.5 Silicon Carbide

3.6 Tantalum Carbide

3.7 Titanium Carbide

3.8 Tungsten Carbide

3.9 Zirconium Carbide

3.10 Miscellaneous Carbides

4.0 The CVD of Nitrides

4.1 Aluminum Nitride

4.2 Boron Nitride

4.3 Hafnium Nitride

4.4 Niobium Nitride

4.5 Silicon Nitride

4.6 Titanium Nitride

4.7 Miscellaneous Nitrides

5.0 The CVD of Oxides

5.1 Aluminum Oxide (Alumina)

5.2 Chromium Oxide (Chromia)

5.3 Hafnium Oxide (Hafnia)

5.4 Iron Oxide

5.5 Silicon Dioxide (Silica)

5.6 Tantalum Oxide (Tantala)

5.7 Tin Oxide

5.8 Titanium Oxide (Titania)

5.9 Zinc Oxide

5.10 Zirconium Oxide (Zirconia) and Yttrium Oxide (Yttria)

5.11 Mixed Oxides and Glasses

5.12 Oxide Superconductors

6.0 The CVD of Silicides

6.1 Molybdenum Disilicide

6.2 Tantalum Disilicide

6.3 Titanium Disilicide

6.4 Tungsten Disilicide

6.5 Other Silicides

7.0 The CVD of Chalcogenides

7.1 Properties of the Chalcogenides

7.2 Cadmium Telluride

7.3 Zinc Selenide

7.4 Zinc Sulfide

References

8. CVD in Electronic Applications

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Electronic Functions and Systems

2.1 Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators

2.2 Categories of Electronic Devices

2.3 Device Miniaturization

2.4 Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)

2.5 Three-Dimensional Structure

3.0 CVD in Electronic Technology

4.0 The CVD of Electrical Insulators

4.1 Silicon Dioxide (SiO2)

4.2 Silicon Nitride

5.0 The CVD of Semiconductors

5.1 Silicon

5.2 Diamond

5.3 III-V and II-VI Semiconductors

6.0 The CVD of Electrical Conductors

6.1 Refractory Metals

6.2 Silicides

7.0 The CVD of Substrates

8.0 The CVD of Superconductors

References

9. CVD in Optoelectronics and Other Electronically Related Applications

1.0 CVD in Optoelectronics

2.0 Optoelectronic Materials

3.0 Optoelectronic CVD Applications

3.1 Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

3.2 Light Detectors

3.3 Semiconductor Lasers

3.4 Trends in CVD Optoelectronic Applications

4.0 CVD in Photovoltaics

4.1 Photovoltaic Principle and Operation

4.2 Photovoltaic Material and Processing

5.0 CVD in Ferroelectricity

5.1 CVD Ferroelectric Materials and Their Properties

5.2 Applications of Ferroelectric CVD Materials

References

10. CVD in Optical Applications

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Optical Properties

3.0 Optical Materials Produced by CVD

4.0 Optical Applications of CVD

4.1 Antireflection Coatings

4.2 Reflective Coatings

4.3 Heat and Light Separation Coatings

4.4 Electrically Conductive Transparent Coatings

4.5 Architectural Glass Coating

4.6 Infrared Optics

4.7 Trends in CVD Optical Applications

5.0 CVD in Optical Fiber Processing

5.1 Optical Considerations

5.2 CVD Production of Optical Fibers

5.3 Infrared (IR) Transmission

References

11. CVD in Wear-, Erosion-, and Corrosion-Resistant Applications

1.0 General Considerations

2.0 Wear Mechanisms

2.1 Mechanical Wear

2.2 Corrosive Wear

2.3 Temperature Effects

3.0 CVD Coatings for Wear- and Corrosion-Resistance

3.1 Wear- and Corrosion-Resistance Materials and Their Properties

3.2 Wear and Corrosion Resistance Applications of CVD Coatings

4.0 CVD in Cutting-Tool Applications

4.1 Cutting Requirements

4.2 Wear and Failure Mechanisms

4.3 Cutting-Tool Coating Materials

4.4 Cutting Tool Materials and the Substrate Problem

5.0 CVD in Corrosion Applications

5.1 CVD Metals for Corrosion Resistance Applications

5.2 CVD Borides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications

5.3 CVD Carbides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications

5.4 CVD Nitrides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications

5.5 CVD Oxides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications

5.6 CVD Silicides for Corrosion-Resistance Applications

5.7 Examples of Corrosion Protection by CVD

6.0 CVD in Nuclear Applications

6.1 Nuclear Fission Applications

6.2 Nuclear Fusion Applications

7.0 CVD in Biomedical Applications

References

12. CVD in Fiber, Powder, and Monolithic Applications

1.0 Introduction

2.0 CVD in Fiber Applications

2.1 The CVD Process for Fiber Production

2.2 The CVD of Boron Fibers

2.3 The CVD of Silicon Carbide Fibers

2.4 Other CVD Fiber Materials

2.5 CVD Coatings for Fibers

2.6 Whiskers

3.0 CVD in Powder Applications

3.1 CVD Ceramic Powders

3.2 CVD Metal Powders

3.3 Coated Powders

4.0 CVD in Monolithic and Composite Applications

4.1 Graphite, Carbon-Carbon and Boron Nitride CVD Structures

4.2 Monolithic Metallic Structures

4.3 CVD Ceramic Composites

References

Appendix: Alternative Processes for Thin-Film Deposition and Surface Modification

1.0 Ion Implantation

2.0 Sol-Gel

3.0 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

3.1 Evaporation

3.2 Sputtering

3.3 Ion Plating

References

Index