Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamonds and Fullerenes

Processing, Properties and Applications


  • Hugh O. Pierson, Sandia National Laboratories (retired)

This book is a review of the science and technology of the element carbon and its allotropes: graphite, diamond and the fullerenes. This field has expanded greatly in the last three decades stimulated by many major discoveries such as carbon fibers, low-pressure diamond, and the fullerenes. The need for such a book has been felt for some time. These carbon materials are very different in structure and properties. Some are very old (charcoal), others brand new (the fullerenes). They have different applications and markets and are produced by different segments of the industry.Few studies are available that attempt to review the entire field of carbon as a whole discipline. Moreover these studies were written several decades ago and a generally outdated since the development of the technology is moving very rapidly and scope of applications is constantly expanding and reaching into new fields such as aerospace, automotive, semiconductors, optics, and electronics. In this book the author provides a valuable, up-to-date account of both the newer and traditional forms of carbon, both naturally occurring and man-made. This volume will be a valuable resource for both specialists in, and occasional users of carbon materials.
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Aerospace, automotive, semiconductors, optics, and electronics.


Book information

  • Published: December 1994
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1339-1


"àa valuable addition to the literature in the field of carbon." - Journal of Materials

Table of Contents

1. Introduction and General Considerations 1.0 Book Objectives 2.0 The Carbon Element and Its Various Forms 3.0 The Carbon Element in Nature 4.0 Historical Perspective 5.0 Products Derived from the Carbon Element 6.0 Profile of the Industry 7.0 Glossary and Metric Conversion Guide 8.0 Background Reading References2. The Element Carbon 1.0 The Structure of the Carbon Atom 2.0 The Isotopes of Carbon 3.0 Hybridization and the sp3 Carbon Bond 4.0 The Trigonal sp2 and Digonal sp Carbon Bonds 5.0 Carbon Vapor Molecules 6.0 The Carbon Allotropes References3. Graphite Structure and Properties 1.0 The Structure of Graphite 2.0 The Various Polycrystalline Forms of Graphite 3.0 Physical Properties of Graphite 4.0 Thermal Properties of Graphite 5.0 Electrical Properties of Graphite 6.0 Mechanical Properties of Graphite 7.0 Chemical Properties References4. Synthetic Carbon and Graphite: Carbonization and Graphitization 1.0 Types of Synthetic Carbon and Graphite 2.0 The Carbonization (Pyrolysis) Process 3.0 The Graphitization Process References5. Molded Graphite: Processing, Properties, and Applications 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 Processing of Molded Graphites 3.0 Characteristics and Properties of Molded Graphite 4.0 Applications and Market of Molded Graphite References6. Vitreous Carbon 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 Precursors and Processing 3.0 Structure and Properties of Vitreous Carbon 4.0 Solid Vitreous Carbon 5.0 Vitreous Carbon Foam 6.0 Vitreous Carbon Spheres and Pellets References7. Pyrolytic Graphite 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 The CVD of Pyrolytic Graphite 3.0 Structure of Pyrolytic Graphite 4.0 Properties of Pyrolytic Graphite 5.0 Applications of Pyrolytic Graphite and Carbon References8. Carbon Fibers 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 Carbon Fibers from Pan 3.0 Carbon Fibers from Pitch 4.0 Carbon Fibers from Rayon 5.0 Carbon Fibers from Vapor-Phase (CVD) Reaction 6.0 Properties of Carbon Fibers References9. Applications of Carbon Fibers 1.0 Carbon-Fiber Composites 2.0 Carbon-Fiber Architecture 3.0 Carbon-Fiber Polymer (Resin) Composites 4.0 Carbon-Carbon 5.0 Metal-Matrix, Carbon-Fiber Composites 6.0 Ceramic-Matrix, Carbon-Fiber Composites 7.0 Other Applications of Carbon Fibers References10. Natural Graphite, Graphite Powders, Particles, and Compounds 1.0 Natural Graphite 2.0 Carbon-Derived Powders and Particles 3.0 Intercalated Compounds and Lubrication 4.0 Activation, Adsorption and Catalysis References11. Structure and Properties of Diamond and Diamond Polytypes 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Structure of Diamond and Diamond Polytypes 3.0 Impurities in Diamond and Classification 4.0 Physical Properties 5.0 Thermal Properties of Diamond 6.0 Optical Properties of Diamond 7.0 X-Ray Transmission of Diamond 8.0 Acoustical Properties of Diamond 9.0 Electrical and Semiconductor Properties of Diamond 10.0 Mechanical Properties of Diamond 11.0 Chemical Properties of Diamond References12. Natural and High-Pressure Synthetic Diamond 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Natural Diamond 3.0 High-Pressure Synthetic Diamond 4.0 Natural and High-Pressure Synthetic Diamond Production 5.0 Industrial Applications of Natural and High-Pressure Synthetic Diamonds References13. CVD Diamond 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Deposition Mechanism of CVD Diamond 3.0 CVD Diamond Processes 4.0 Properties of CVD Diamond 5.0 Applications of CVD Diamond References14. Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) 1.0 General Characteristics of DLC 2.0 Structure and Composition of DLC 3.0 Processing of DLC 4.0 Characteristics and Properties of DLC 5.0 Applications of DLC References15. The Fullerene Molecules 1.0 General Considerations 2.0 Structure of the Fullerene Molecules 3.0 Fullerenes in the Condensed State 4.0 Chemical Reactivity and Fullerene Compounds 5.0 Fullerenes Processing 6.0 Potential Applications References Glossary Index