Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives book cover

Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives

This handbook, now in its second edition, is the only comprehensive reference available on the subject of antiblocking, release, and slip additives, which are of high industrial importance. These additives are used to alter the properties and performance of polymers, and improve the efficiency and cost of processing methods. These characteristics make additives an important topic across the spectrum of industry sectors that employ plastics and polymers.

Topics covered include: Types and concentrations, Effect on polymer and/or other additives, and Typical formulations. Information on use of additives in various products is divided into the following sections: Types and concentrations, Reasons for use, Advantages and disadvantages of additive use, Effect on product properties, and Examples of formulations. Processing methods are discussed using the following breakdown: Types and concentrations, Effect on process, Effect on product properties, Advantages and disadvantages of additive use, Examples of formulations. A complete analysis of literature and patents available from the first use of these additives until now is included in the book.

Wypych considers all essential aspects of chemistry, physical properties, influence on properties of final products, formulations, methods of incorporation, analysis, and effects on health and environment. The book comprises 18 chapters, each addressing specific aspect of properties and applications of antiblocking, release, and slip agents.

Audience

Engineers and Scientists involved in the design and development of plastics materials and products; Engineers and Technicians involved in the design and optimization of production processes using plastics.

Hardbound, 640 Pages

Published: October 2010

Imprint: Chemtec

ISBN: 978-1-895198-45-4

Contents

  • 1 Introduction
    1.1 Historical developments
    1.2 Expectations from commercial additives
    1.3 Definitions
    1.4 Classification
    References

    2 Generic Types
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Characteristic properties of commercial additives
    2.2.1 Antiblocking agents
    2.2.1.1 Inorganic
    2.2.1.1.1 Calcium carbonate
    2.2.1.1.2 Carbon nanotubes, fibers, graphite
    2.2.1.1.3 Ceramic and glass spheres and fly ash
    2.2.1.1.4 Diatomaceous earth and other natural silicas
    2.2.1.1.5 Synthetic silica
    2.2.1.1.6 Synthetic clay (laponite)
    2.2.1.1.7 Talc
    2.2.1.1.8 Zeolite
    2.2.1.2 Organic
    2.2.1.2.1 Microparticles
    2.2.2 Mold release agents
    2.2.2.1 Fluorocompounds
    2.2.2.2 Polydimethylsiloxanes
    2.2.2.3 Polymeric waxes
    2.2.2.4 Other chemical compounds
    2.2.3 Slip agents
    2.2.3.1 Acids
    2.2.3.2 Esters
    2.2.3.3 Fatty acid amides
    2.2.3.4 Natural wax and its substitutes
    2.2.3.5 Salts
    References

    3 Standard Methods of Control
    3.1 Adhesives
    3.2 Floor coverings
    3.3 Footwear and walkway surfaces
    3.4 Geosynthetics
    3.5 Leather and coated fabrics
    3.6 Lubricants
    3.7 Medical1
    3.8 Paints and coatings
    3.9 Paper
    3.10 Plastics and rubber
    3.11 Roads and pavement
    3.12 Sport equipment
    3.13 Textiles
    References

    4 Transportation and Storage
    4.1 Transportation
    4.2 Storage
    References

    5 Mechanisms of Action
    5.1 Antiblocking agents
    5.2 Slip agents
    5.3 Release agents
    References

    6 Compatibility and Performance
    References

    7 Diffusion and Migration
    7.1 Diffusion
    7.2 Distribution of additive in bulk and on surface
    7.3 How mobility affects additive selection?
    7.4 Additive transfer to material in contact
    7.5 Additive loss
    References

    8 Interaction with Other Components of Formulation
    8.1 Fillers
    8.2 Other components of formulation
    8.3 Synergy between surface additives
    8.4 Other properties
    References

    9 Processing and Additive Performance
    References

    10 Effect on Product Properties
    10.1 Mechanical properties
    10.2 Mar and abrasion
    10.3 Shrinkage and warpage
    10.4 Blocking force
    10.5 Adhesion to mold and demolding
    10.6 Coefficient of friction
    10.7 Residues on molds
    10.8 Residues on molded parts
    10.9 Optical properties
    10.10 Rheological properties
    10.11 Electrical properties
    10.12 Structure and orientation
    10.13 Thermal aging
    10.14 UV radiation
    10.15 Effect on other properties
    References

    11 Use in Specific Polymers
    11.1 ABS
    11.2 Acrylics
    11.3 Bromobutyl rubber
    11.4 Cellulose acetate
    11.5 Cellulose, acetate, butyrate and propionate
    11.6 Cellulose nitrate
    11.7 Chlorinated polyvinylchloride
    11.8 Chlorosulfonated polyethylene
    11.9 Copolymers
    11.10 Cyanoacrylates
    11.11 Ethyl cellulose
    11.12 Ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer, EPDM
    11.13 Ethylene-propylene rubber, EPR
    11.14 Epoxy resin
    11.15 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, EVA
    11.16 Ionomers
    11.17 Nitrile rubber
    11.18 Polyamide
    11.19 Polybutadiene
    11.20 Polycarbonate
    11.21 Polyester
    11.22 Polyetherimide
    11.23 Polyethylene
    11.24 Polyimide
    11.25 Polylactide
    11.26 Polymethylmethacrylate
    11.27 Polyoxymethylene
    11.28 Poly(N-vinylcarbazole)
    11.29 Polyphenylene ether
    11.30 Polypropylene
    11.31 Polystyrene
    11.32 Polysulfone
    11.33 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
    11.34 Polyvinylacetate
    11.35 Polyvinylalcohol
    11.36 Polyvinylbutyral
    11.37 Polyvinylchloride
    11.38 Polyurethanes
    11.39 Proteins
    11.40 Rubber, natural
    11.41 Silicone
    11.42 Styrene-butadiene rubber
    11.43 Styrene-butadiene-styrene
    11.44 Starch
    References

    12 Use in Industrial Products
    12.1 Adhesives and sealants
    12.2 Aerospace
    12.3 Agriculture
    12.4 Automotive applications
    12.5 Bottles
    12.6 Ceramic materials
    12.7 Composites
    12.8 Coated fabrics
    12.9 Cosmetics
    12.10 Dental materials
    12.11 Electronics
    12.12 Fibers
    12.11 Film
    12.12 Food
    12.13 Foams
    12.14 Gaskets
    12.15 Inks, varnishes, and lacquers
    12.16 Medical devices
    12.17 Membranes
    12.18 Paints and coatings
    12.19 Pharmaceutical products
    12.20 Photographic materials
    12.21 Pipes
    12.22 Roofing materials
    12.23 Tires
    12.24 Toys
    12.25 Wire & cable
    References

    13 Various Processing Methods
    13.1 Blow molding
    13.2 Calendering
    13.3 Coextrusion
    13.4 Compression molding
    13.5 Compounding (mixing)
    13.6 Dip coating
    13.7 Dryblending
    13.8 Extrusion
    13.9 Extrusion blow molding
    13.10 Injection molding
    13.11 Printing
    13.12 Reaction injection molding
    13.13 Rotational molding
    13.14 Rubber processing
    13.15 Slip casting
    13.16 Thermoforming
    13.17 Transfer molding
    References

    14 Specialized Analytical Methods
    14.1 Identification
    14.2 Determination of concentration
    14.3 Determination of volatility and molecular motion
    14.4 Study of materials containing additives
    References


    15 Mathematical Modelling
    References


    16 Health, Safety and Environmental
    16.1 Antiblocking agents
    16.1.1 Inorganic
    16.1.1.1 Calcium carbonate
    16.1.1.2 Carbon related materials
    16.1.1.3 Ceramic and glass spheres and fly ash
    16.1.1.4 Diatomaceous earth and natural silicas
    16.1.1.5 Synthetic silica
    16.1.1.6 Synthetic clay (laponite)
    16.1.1.7 Talc
    16.1.2 Organic
    16.1.2.1 Microparticles
    16.2 Release agents
    16.2.1 Fluorocompounds
    16.2.2 Polydimethylsiloxane
    16.2.3 Polymeric waxes
    16.2.4 Other chemical compounds
    16.3 Slip agents
    16.3.1 Acids
    16.3.2 Esters
    16.3.3 Fatty acid amides
    16.3.4 Natural wax
    16.3.5 Salts
    References


    17 Regulations and Data
    17.1 Toxic substance control
    17.2. Carcinogenic effect
    17.3 Workplace exposure limits
    17.4 Food regulatory acts
    References


    18 Personal Protection
    18.1 Clothing
    18.2 Gloves
    18.3 Eye protection
    18.4 Respiratory protection
    References 

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