Foreword: the neuroimmune biology of growth and lactogenic hormones (I. Berczi). Preface (R. Rapaport). List of corresponding authors. I. Introduction. Immunoregulation by prolactin - An Introduction (L. Matera). II. GLH Biology, Development & Receptors. The growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor - I axis and immunity (W.Mejia Naranjo, M. Sanchez-Gomez, D. Le Roith). Reciprocal interactions between the GH/IGF-1 system and cytokines (F. de Benedetti, M. Bozzola). Biological significance of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (S.A. Weinzimer, P. Cohen). The expression and function of GH/IGF-I receptors in the immune system (A. Tenore, G. Valero). Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 production by cells of the immune system (D. Weigent). Potential applications of growth hormone in promoting immune reconstitution (W.J. Murphy, L. Welniak, Rui Sun). Signal transduction by PRL receptors(Li-yuan Yu-Lee). Signal transduction and modulation of gene expression by prolactin in humanleukocytes (R. Hooghe, S. de Vos, Z. Dogusan, E.L. Hooghe-Peters). Regulation of PRL release by cytokines and immunomodifiers: interrelationshipbetween leptin and prolactin secretion. Functional implications (O. Gualillo et al.). Prolactin expression in the immune cells (R. Kooijman, S. Gerlo)III. Hemopoiesis and Development.Prolactin as a promoter of growth and differentiation of hemopoietic cells (G. Bellone). Growth hormone/insulin-like growth factors and hematopoiesis (R. Moghaddas, R. Rapaport). Uteroplacental prolactin family: immunological regulators of viviparity (R. Ain, H. Müller, N. Sahgal, G. Dai, M.J. Soares). IV. GLH and the Immune Response.Effect of prolactin on natural killer and MHC-restricted cytotoxic cells (L. Matera, S. Buttiglieri, F. Moro, M. Geuna). In vivo changes of PRL levels during the T-cell dependent immune response (C. Perez Castro, et al.). Prolactin regulates macrophage and NK cell mediated inflammation and cytotoxic response against tumor (U. Chattopadhyay, R. Biswas). V. GLH and Disease.Acromegaly and immune function (A. Colao, D. Ferone, P. Marzullo, G. Lombardi). Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in human immunodeficiency virus infection (M.E. Geffner). Human prolactin as an immunohematopoietic factor: implications for the clinic (S.M. Richards). Effectiveness of bromocriptine in the treatment of autoimmune diseases (S.E. Walker). The pathogenic role of prolactin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (N. Suzuki). Keyword index.