Standing alone as the main authority on the subject, this handbook is the result of a multi-million dollar investigation into groundwater monitoring strategies at energy extraction sites. It gives a detailed, step-by-step description of a proven groundwater monitoring methodology which can be used at all potential pollution sites. This methodology, developed by the author and a ``blue ribbon'' team of hydrologists and hydrogeologists from all over the United States, is endorsed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as ``establishing the state-of-the-art used by industry today''.Although site-specific data are provided, the handbook is developed for general application to coal and oil shale development. All sources of potential groundwater contamination from these two energy extraction types are identified as part of the overall monitoring strategy. Sampling methods are presented, including well design, monitor well placement, sample collection methods, sampling frequency, sample preservation and handling, selection and preservation of constituents for monitoring, sample analysis, and interpretation of water quality data. A complete review is provided of drill stem steps, dual packer tests, long term pump tests, and single packer tests. In addition, hydraulic methods, the application of geophysical techniques including temperature, caliper, gamma ray, spinner, radioactive tracer, velocity, sonic, density, electric, and seisviewer logs are presented. The use of a chronological series of steps, each being fully developed and extensively referenced, means that it is particularly easy to follow for the reader wishing to establish a groundwater monitoring program at a coal or oil shale site. One of the great advantages of the handbook is that it is very detailed, with actual data provided.The handbook is a must for consulting engineers, coal and oil development companies, government and private environmental groups, institutes and universities involved in pollution studies. It will also undoubtedly be used to good advantage by teachers and students for many different types of courses including geological engineering, coal and oil shale mining, environmental geology, sanitary engineering, hydrogeology, etc.