Green Chemistry and EngineeringBy
- Mukesh Doble, Department of Biotechnology I.I.T. Madras, Chennai, India
- Anil Kumar, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning
Chemical processes provide a diverse array of valuable products and materials used in applications ranging from health care to transportation and food processing. Yet these same chemical processes that provide products and materials essential to modern economies, also generate substantial quantities of wastes and emissions. Green Chemistry is the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances in design. Due to extravagant costs needed to managing these wastes, tens of billions of dollars a year, there is a need to propose a way to create less waste. Emission and treatment standards continue to become more stringent, which causes these costs to continue to escalate.This book describes both the science (theory) and engineering (application) principles of Green Chemistry that lead to the generation of less waste. It explores the use of milder manufacturing conditions resulting from the use of smarter organic synthetic techniques and the maintenance of atom efficiency that can temper the effects of chemical processes. By implementing these techniques means less waste, which will save industry millions of dollars over time.
Hardbound, 344 Pages
Published: July 2007
Imprint: Academic Press
- CHAPTER 1 IntroductionWhat is Green Chemistry? and Why Green? What has been happening over the past 60 years in the area of chemistry and chemical technology, with reference to waste, pollution, effluent and other environmental issues, which are caused by chemical manufacturing, will be listed. The advantages of this approach will be outlinedConcept of measuring greenness. What is responsible care? CHAPTER 2 Novel Synthetic techniquesExamples of organic reactions which shows innovation in the reduction of raw material/solvent usage, milder operating conditions, generates less wasteful side products etc. CHAPTER 3 Use of catalysts towards Green ChemistryExamples of reactions that use Heterogeneous or homogeneous catalysts leading to Green scenario. By using these catalyst either the reaction is made milder, efficiency is improved or the amount of side product formed is decreased etc. CHAPTER 4 Biocatalysis and Green chemistryExamples of biotransformations leading to Green scenario. There are several examples where biocatalysis simplifies the reaction, telescopes multiple steps into one and makes it environmentally clean and friendly. Even reactions which can not be performed with chemical synthesis can be carried out with ease using microbes. CHAPTER 5 New reagents and solventsUse of new reagents and solvents which are benign, environmentally friendly and do not contribute towards voc.CHAPTER 6 Process and OperationProcess intensification, better hardware design, better unit operation design, better flow sheet etc. It will also cover use of membranes and other novel down stream processing techniques. CHAPTER 7 Energy and Renewable resourcesAlternate energy sources discussed. Hydrocarbon fuel is a non-renewable source of energy. Research using alternate energy sources is being pursued seriously in many research labs world over. Also apart from simple heating ultra sound, IR are also being considered as sources for initiating reactions. Use of renewable raw material includes ethanol, biodiesel etc. CHAPTER 8 Inherent safety Processes that are milder, use less toxic solvents, do not product dangerous intermediate, do not produce recalcitrant waste or side products chemicals etc. are termed as inherently safe. Such a philosophy could prevent another Bhopal. CHAPTER 9 Industrial Examples/Case studiesIndustrial examples of processes where Green has been implemented or practiced are discussed in this chapter.CHAPTER 10 Future trendsFrontier research. A glimpse into the future will be outlined and the direction the future research will take will be predicted.