Green Analytical Chemistry book cover

Green Analytical Chemistry

Theory and Practice

This book provides basic coverage of the fundamentals and principles of green chemistry as it applies to chemical analysis. The main goal of Green Analytical Chemistry is to avoid or reduce the undesirable environmental side effects of chemical analysis, while preserving the classic analytical parameters of accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, and precision. The authors review the main strategies for greening analytical methods, concentrating on minimizing sample preparation and handling, reducing solvent and reagent consumption, reducing energy consumption, minimizing of waste, operator safety and the economic savings that this approach offers.

Suggestions are made to educators and editors to standardize terminology in order to facilitate the identification of analytical studies on green alternatives in the literature because there is not a wide and generalized use of a common term that can group efforts to prevent waste, avoid the use of potentially toxic reagents or solvents and those involving the decontamination of wastes.


Researchers and scientists doing chemical analysis in a laboratory environment, teachers and graduate students in academia

Hardbound, 268 Pages

Published: October 2010

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53709-6


  • "Green Analytical Chemistry reviews the main strategies for making analytical methods greener through minimizing sample preparation and handling, reduction of solvent and reagent consumption, reduction of energy consumption and minimization of waste, all aimed at avoiding or reducing the undesirable environmental side effects of chemical analysis, while preserving the accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity and precision of the analytical determination. Throughout the book the authors highlight the economic aspects of green analytical chemistry that offer opportunities for saving reagents and reducing energy consumption and waste management costs."--Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry


  • 1. Origins of Green Analytical Chemistry
    1.1. The Ecological Paradigm
    1.2. The environmental opportunities for Analytical Chemistry
    1.3. The bad conscience of consumers of reagents and waste generation
    1.4. Clean analytical methods
    1.5. Green Chemistry
    1.6. The integrated approach of Analytical Chemistry
    1.7. The state-of-the-art of Green Analytical Chemistry
    1.8. References

    2.  The basis of a greener Analytical Chemistry
    2.1. The side effects of reagents and solvents
    2.2. The energy costs of Analytical Chemistry
    2.3. Waste generation and its associated risks
    2.4. Strategies for greening Analytical Chemistry
    2.5. References

    3. A green evaluation of existing analytical methods
    3.1. Toxicological data of reagents
    3.2. Evaluation of the contact of operators with reagents and wastes
    3.3. Evaluation of energy consumption
    3.4. Evaluation of reagent consumption and waste generation
    3.5. Compatibility of Green Chemistry principles and the main analytical figures of merit
    3.6. References

    4. Avoiding sample treatments
    4.1. Remote sensing
    4.2. Noninvasive measurements on blisters, bottles or vials
    4.3. Direct analysis without sample damage
    4.4. Direct methods with sample damage
    4.5. References

    5. Greening sample treatments
    5.1.  Solid sample extraction techniques
    5.2.  Extraction of liquid samples
    5.3     Extraction of volatile analytes; direct thermal desorption
    5.4. Concluding remarks
    5.5. References

    6. Multianalyte determination versus one-at-a-time methodologies
    6.1.  Multianalyte determination in spectroscopy
    6.2.  Multianalyte determination in mass spectrometry
    6.3.  Multianalyte determination in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis
    6.4.  Mass spectrometry as detector in separation systems
    6.5.  References

    7. Downsizing the methods
    7.1.  Minimization of the reagents consumed through automation
    7.2.  Miniaturization of sample preparation systems
    7.3.  Miniaturization of analysis systems
    7.4.  Electrochemical sensors
    7.5.  Spectroscopic sensors
    7.6.  UPLC, micro and nanoHPLC
    7.7.  References

    8. Moving from wastes to clean wastes
    8.1.  The problem of analytical wastes
    8.2. Replacement of toxic reagents
    8.3. Use of alternative solvents (Ionic Liquids)
    8.4. On-line decontamination of wastes
    8.5. On-line recycling of wastes
    8.6. References

    9. Ideas for a change of mentality and practices
    9.1. Introducing sustainable parameters in the evaluation of methods
    9.2. Economic balances of sustainability
    9.3. Downsizing the scale of problems
    9.4. Creating new relationships between samples and operators
    9.5. References

    10.  Practical consequences of green analytical chemistry
    10.1. The use of green terms
    10.2. The need of classification criteria for analytical methods concerning sustainability
    10.3. Practices to be avoided in analytical laboratories
    10.4. Practices to be improved in analytical laboratories
    10.5. Greening the analytical publications
    10.6. Teaching Green Analytical Chemistry
    10.7. References


advert image