Geothermal Power Plants
Principles, Applications and Case StudiesBy
- Ronald DiPippo, Energy Systems Consultant, Chancellor Professor Emeritus, University of Massachussets, Dartmouth, USA
Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies is the latest book from Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. It is a single resource on all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for electric power generation. Written in one voice by a respected authority in the field with twenty-five years of experience in geothermal research, teaching, and consulting, it is intended for those involved in any aspect of the geothermal industry. Grounded in fundamental scientific and engineering principles, its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of actual case studies from historic and present-day plants. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book. The Second Law is used extensively to assess the performance and guide the design of various types of geothermal energy conversion systems. The case studies included in the third part of the book are chosen from plants around the world, and increase the reader's understanding of the elements involved in gaining access to, and making use of, this important renewable energy resource.The book is illustrated with over 240 photographs and drawings, many in full color. Nine chapters include practice problems, with answers, for the reader to test his/her understanding of the material. A comprehensive and definitive worldwide compilation of every geothermal power plant that has ever operated, unit by unit, is given in detailed tables as an appendix. In another appendix, DiPippo offers a concise digest of applicable thermodynamics.
Geothermal power companies; energy providers; untilities companies; equipment designers & manufacturers; mechanical, electrical, chemical, industrial, power and design engineers; power plant technicians and engineers; geothermal researchers and developers; managers; academics.
Hardbound, 512 pages
Published: July 2005
- PART ONE RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT: 1. Geology of Geothermal Regions; Introduction; The earth and its atmosphere; Active geothermal regions; Model of a hydrothermal geothermal resource; Other types of geothermal resources; References; Problems. 2. Exploration Strategies and Techniques: Introduction; Objectives of an exploration program; Phases of an exploration program; Synthesis and interpretation; The next step: drilling; References; Problems. 3. Geothermal Well Drilling; Introduction; Site preparation and drilling equipment; Drilling operations; Safety precautions; References; Reservoir Engineering; Introduction; Reservoir and well flow; Well testing; Reservoir modeling and simulation; References; Problems. PART TWO GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATING SYSTEMS: 5. Single-Flash Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Gathering system design considerations; Energy conversion system; Thermodynamics of the conversion process; Example: Single-flash optimisation; Optimum separator temperature: An approximate formulation; Environmental aspects for single-flash plants; Equipment list for single-flash plants; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 5; Problems. 6. Double-Flash Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Gathering system design considerations; Energy conversion system; Thermodynamics of the conversion process; Temperature-entropy process diagram; Flash and separation processes; HP- and LP-turbine expansion processes; Condensing and cooling tower processes; utilization efficiency; Optimization methodology; Example: Double-flash optimisation; Scale potential in waste brine; Silica chemistry; Silica scaling potential in flash plants; Environmental aspects for double-flash plants; Equipment list for double-flash plants; Wellhead, brine and steam supply system; Turbine-generator and controls; Condenser, gas ejection and pollution control (where needed); Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Noise abatement system (where required); Geofluid disposal system; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 6; Problems. 7. Dry-Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Origins and nature of dry-steam resources; Steam gathering system; Energy conversion system; Turbine expansion process; Condensing and cooling tower processes; utilization efficiency; Example: Optimum wellhead pressure; Environmental aspects of dry-steam plants; Equipment list for dry-steam plants; Steam supply system; Turbine-generator and controls; Condenser, gas ejection and pollution control (where needed); Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Noise abatement system (where required); Condensate Disposal System; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 7; Problems. 8. Binary Cycle Power Plants: Introduction; Basic binary systems; Turbine analysis; Condenser analysis; Feedpump analysis; Heat exchanger analysis: Preheater and evaporator; Overall cycle analysis; Working fluid selection; Thermodynamic properties; Sonic velocity and turbine size; Health, safety and environmental considerations; Advanced binary cycles; Ideal binary cycle; Dual-pressure binary cycle; Dual-fluid binary cycle; Kalina binary cycles; Environmental impact of binary cycles; Equipment list for basic binary plants; Downwell pumps and motors; Brine supply system; Brine/working fluid heat exchangers; Turbine-generator and controls; Working fluid condenser, accumulator and storage system; Working fluid feed pump system; Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Brine disposal system; Fire protection system (if working fluid is flammable); References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 8; Problems; 9. Advanced Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems; Introduction; Hybrid single-flash and double-flash systems; Integrated single- and double-flash plants; Combined single- and double-flash plants; Hybrid flash-binary systems; Combined flash-binary plants; Integrated flash-binary plants; Example: Integrated flash-binary hybrid system; Total-flow systems; Axial-flow impulse turbine; Rotary separator turbine; Helical screw expander; Conclusions; Hybrid fossil-geothermal systems; Fossil-superheat systems; Geothermal-preheat system; Geopressure-geothermal hybrid systems; Combined heat and power plants; Hot dry rock and enhanced geothermal systems; Fenton Hill HDR project Hijiori HDR project; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 9; Problems. 10. Exergy Analysis Applied to Geothermal Power Systems; Introduction; First law for open, steady systems; Second law for open, steady systems; Exergy; General concept; Exergy of fluid streams; Exergy for heat transfer; Exergy for work transfer; Exergy accounting for open, steady systems; Exergy efficiencies and applications to geothermal plants; Definitions of exergy efficiencies; Exergy efficiencies for steam turbines; Exergy efficiencies for heat exchangers; Exergy efficiencies for flash vessels; Exergy efficiencies for compressors; References;Problems. PART THREE GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT CASE STUDIES:11. Larderello Dry-Steam Power Plants, Tuscany, Italy; History of development; Geology and reservoir characteristics; Power plants; Early power plants; Power plants of the modern era; Direct-intake, exhausting-to-atmosphere units; Direct-intake, condensing units; Recent power plant designs; Mitigation of environmental impact; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 11. 12. The Geysers Dry-Steam Power Plants, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California, U.S.A: History and early power plants; Geographic and geologic setting; Well drilling; Steam pipeline system; Power plants; Plant design under PG SMUDGEO #1 plant design; Power plant operations under Calpine ownership; Recharging the reservoir; Toward sustainability; References. 13. Cerro Prieto Power Station, Baja California Norte, Mexico: Overview of Mexican geothermal development; Cerro Prieto geographical and geological setting; Cerro Prieto power plants; Cerro Prieto I ¿ Units 1-5; Cerro Prieto II ¿ Units 1-2 and Cerro Prieto III ¿ Units 1-2; Cerro Prieto IV ¿ Units 1-4; Expansion of Cerro Prieto and nearby prospects; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 13. 14. Hatchobaru Power Station, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan: Overview of Japanese geothermal development; Hatchobaru geothermal field; Geological setting; Production and reinjection; Hatchobaru power units; Double-flash units; Binary unit; Conclusion and forecast; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 14. 15. Mutnovsky Flash-Steam Power Plant, Kamchakta Peninsula, Russia; Setting, exploration, and early developments; Conceptual model of Mutnovsky geothermal field; Verkhne-Mutnovsky 12 MW power plant; Mutnovsky first-stage 50 MW power plant; Future power units at Mutnovsky Verkhne-Mutnovsky IV; Mutnovsky second stage; References; 16. Miravalles Power Station, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica; Traveling to Miravalles; History of Geothermal Development; Wells; Power generation; Calcite inhibition system; Acid neutralization system; Environmental protection and monitoring; References; 17. Heber Binary Plants, Imperial Valley, California, USA; Introduction; Exploration and discovery; The first Heber binary plant; The second Heber binary plant; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 17. 18. Magmamax Binary Power Plant, East Mesa, Imperial Valley California, USA; Setting and exploration; Magmamax binary power plant; Modified Magmamax binary power plant; Conclusion; References. APPENDICES; INDEX