Gazelles and Their Relatives

A Study in Territorial Behavior


  • Fritz R. Walther, Department of Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, USA (retired)
  • Elizabeth C. Mungall, Texas Woman's University; Exotic Wildlife Association, USA
  • Gerald A. Grau, National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA

Gazelles and their relatives are important game animals in Africa and Asia; they have been successfully introduced into the US and they are also kept in zoos throughout the world. The occurrence of territorial behavior and its importance for the reproduction of gazelles has been recognized for some time; thus specific information on their territorial behavior is desirable both for scientific and for practical reasons. This book provides the first concrete information on territory size and shape, duration of territorial periods, reoccupation of territories, phases of territoriality, the process of becoming territorial and of abandoning the territory, favorable and unfavorable environmental factors for territorial establishment, and territoriality as antagonist of migratory behavior. Also included are many previously unknown details of traditional territorial behavior, such as differences in the aggression of owners of territories toward (male) conspecifics of different age and social class, the structure of a marking system within a territory, etc.
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Animal scientists, veterinarians, agricultural and zoological managers and handlers, animal behaviorists.


Book information

  • Published: December 1983
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-0928-8

Table of Contents

IntroductionOn Classification of AntilopinaePresent Status of Research in Antilopinae BehaviorDefinition of TerritoryGeneral MethodsSex and Age ClassesIndividual IdentificationAnimal Populations and Habitats: Study AreasIndian BlackbuckMountain GazelleThomson's and Grant's GazelleThe Place of Territoriality within the Social SystemGregariousness and Isolation TendencyThe Social GroupsThe Territorial MalesTerritoriality vs. Gregariousness and Migratory BehaviorShape, Size and Density of Territories: Territorial PeriodsGeneral AspectsEnvironmental Requirements for Territoriality in Single SpeciesStructure of TerritoryResting Sites and Other Specific Activity SitesCenter and BoundaryMarking SystemMale Behavior at Peak of TerritorialityMarking BehaviorAggressive BehaviorHerding BehaviorSexual BehaviorBehavioral Peculiarities of Territorial Males as Compared to Other ClassesSpecial Relations among Territorial NeighborsThe Day of a Territorial BuckVariations in Territorial BehaviorRise and Decline of Territoriality in AntilopinaeBecoming TerritorialDecline of TerritorialityAbandoning the TerritoryFunctions of Territoriality in AntilopinaeFunctions in ReproductionFunctions in Social Organization and Spatial DistributionComparative Aspects of Antilopinae TerritorialityManagement Implications