Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining book cover

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining provides a thorough and balanced introduction to refinery engineering topics, from basic concepts and unit operations to overall refinery economics, planning and control. Based on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, the text develops the scientific background needed to understand refinery operations, provides an in-depth description of major refinery processes, and then assimilates an integrated refinery by focusing on the economic and operational aspects for enhancing performance and profitability. Important subjects which are not commonly considered in refinery texts, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, automatic control, environmental impacts as well as the planning and supply chain of refinery operations are included. Throughout, the book provides numerous opportunities to put fundamental refining principles into practice. Many worked examples offer clear understanding of the covered subjects.

Audience
Students in Chemical Engineering, practitioners in refineries, and consultants to the Oil and Gas industry

Hardbound, 516 Pages

Published: November 2009

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-52785-1

Contents

  • CH. 1: INTRODUCTION
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Refinery Processes
    1.3 Refinery Configuration

    CH. 2: REFINERY FEEDSTOCKS AND PRODUCTS
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Composition of Crude Oils
    2.3 Products Composition
    2.4 Physical Property Characterization Data
    2.5 Chemical Analysis Data

    CH. 3: THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS AND CRUDE OILS
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Basic Input Data
    3.3 Pseudo Components
    3.4 Thermo Physical Properties Calculation
    3.5 Calculation of Enthalpy of Petroleum Fractions
    3.6 Estimation of Properties Related to Phase Changes
    3.7 Calculating Properties Utilizing UNISIM Software
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 4: CRUDE DISTILLATION
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Process Description
    4.3 Operation of Crude Distillation Units
    4.4 Crude Oil Desalting
    4.5 Vacuum Distillation
    4.6 Crude Distillation Material Balance
    4.7 Design of Crude Distillation Units Using Simulator
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 5: CATALYTIC REFORMING AND ISOMERIZATION
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Catalytic Reforming
    5.3 Isomerization of Light Naphtha
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 6: THERMAL CRACKING AND COKING PROCESSES
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Coke Formation
    6.3 Thermodynamics of Coking of Light Hydrocarbon
    6.4 Visbreaking
    6.5 Delayed Coking
    6.6 Fluid Coking
    6.7 Flexicoking
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 7: HYDROCONVERSION
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Hydrotreating
    7.3 Hydrocracking
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 8: FLUIDISED CATALYTIC CRACKING
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Role of FCC in the Refinery
    8.3 Feedstock and Products
    8.4 Fluidisation
    8.5 FCC Reactions
    8.6 Thermodynamics of FCC Reactions
    8.7 FCC Catalyst
    8.8 FCC Configuration
    8.9 Process Description
    8.10 Modes of Fluidisation in FCC Unit
    8.11 FCC Yield Correlations
    8.12 Material and Energy Balances
    8.13 Kinetic Model for FCC Reactor
    8.14 Concentration and Temperature Profiles in the Riser
    8.15 Simulation of FCC Unit
    8.16 New Technology
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 9: PRODUCT BLENDING

    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Reid Vapour Pressure Blending
    9.3 Flash Point Blending
    9.4 Pour Point Blending
    9.5 Cloud Point Blending
    9.6 Aniline Point Blending
    9.7 Smoke Point Blending
    9.8 Viscosity Blending
    9.9 Gasoline Octane Number Blending
    9.10 Linear Programming (LP) For Blending
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 10: ALKYLATION
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Role of Alkylation and Polymerization Units in the Refinery
    10.3 Alkylation Processes
    10.4 Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Alkylation
    10.5 Performance of Alkylation Process
    10.6 Material Balance Calculations Using Yield Factors
    10.7 Simulation of the Alkylation Process
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 11: HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Hydrogen Requirements in Modern Refineries
    11.3 Steam Reforming Hydrogen Sources
    11.4 Product Purification
    11.5 New Developments in Steam Reforming 
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 12: CLEAN FUELS
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Specifications of Clean Fuels
    12.3 Production of Clean Fuels from Crude Oil
    12.4 Production of Clean Fuels from Natural Gas and Coal
    12.5 Production of Clean Fuels Using Biological Sources (Bio-Fuel)
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 13: RESIDUE UPGRADING
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Upgrading Options
    13.3 Non-catalytic Residue Upgrading Processes
    13.4 Catalytic Processes
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 14: SAFETY IN PETROLEUM REFINERIES
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Hazards in Refinery Units
    14.3 Safety Programs and Regulations
    14.4 Accidents and Loss Prevention Measures
    14.5 Risk Management and Risk Assessment
    14.6 Fire and Explosions
    14.7  Hazard Analysis
    14.8  Safety Considerations in Plant Layout
    14.9 Safe Operation Systems
    14.10  Emergency Alarms
    14.11 Noise in Refinery
    14.12 Questions and Problems

    CH. 15: ACID GAS PROCESSING AND MERCAPTANS REMOVAL
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Absorption of Acid Gases
    15.3 Sulphur Recovery
    15.4 Mercaptans Removal
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 16: REFINERY ECONOMICS
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Refining Capacity
    16.3 Refining Costs
    16.4 Refining Margins
    16.5 Refinery Complexity
    16.6 Economic Analysis
    16.7 Global Trends
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 17: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS IN REFINERY
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Wastes in Refinery Units
    17.3 Waste Management
    Questions and Problems

    CH. 18: OVERALL REFINERY CASE STUDY
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 The Case Study

    APPENDIX
    Appendix A: Conversion Factors
    Appendix B: Definition of Terms
    Appendix C: Process Simulator (UNISIM) Manual
    Appendix D: Research Octane Number for Hydrocarbons
    Appendix C: Instrumentation and Control Drawings in the P&ID
    NOTATION
    INDEX

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