Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining


  • Mohamed Fahim, Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait
  • Taher Al-Sahhaf, Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait
  • Amal Elkilani, Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait Univerity, Safat, Kuwait

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not commonly discussed in most refinery textbooks. Throughout the source, problem sets and examples are given to help the reader practice and apply the fundamental principles of refining. Chapters 1-10 can be used as core materials for teaching undergraduate courses. The first two chapters present an introduction to the petroleum refining industry and then focus on feedstocks and products. Thermophysical properties of crude oils and petroleum fractions, including processes of atmospheric and vacuum distillations, are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Conversion processes, product blending, and alkylation are covered in chapters 5-10. The remaining chapters discuss hydrogen production, clean fuel production, refining economics and safety, acid gas treatment and removal, and methods for environmental and effluent treatments. This source can serve both professionals and students (on undergraduate and graduate levels) of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Chemistry, and Chemical Technology. Beginners in the engineering field, specifically in the oil and gas industry, may also find this book invaluable.
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Students in Chemical Engineering, practitioners in refineries, and consultants to the Oil and Gas industry


Book information

  • Published: November 2009
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-52785-1

Table of Contents

Preface1. Introduction 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Refining Processes 1.2.1. Physical Separation Processes 1.2.2. Chemical Catalytic Conversion Processes 1.2.3. Thermal Chemical Conversion Processes 1.3. Refinery Configuration 1.3.1. Type of Products 1.3.2. Environmental Regulation 1.3.3. Crude Assay and Quality 1.3.4. Refinery-petrochemical Integration 1.3.5. Development of New Technology2. Refinery Feedstocks and Products 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Composition of Crude Oils 2.2.1. Paraffins 2.2.2. Olefins 2.2.3. Naphthenes (cycloalkanes) 2.2.4. Aromatics 2.2.5. Sulphur Compounds 2.2.6. Oxygen Compounds 2.2.7. Nitrogen Compounds 2.2.8. Metallic Compounds 2.2.9. Asphaltenes and Resins 2.3. Products Composition 2.3.1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) 2.3.2. Gasoline 2.3.3. Kerosene 2.3.4. Jet Fuel 2.3.5. Diesel Fuel 2.3.6. Fuel Oil 2.3.7. Residual Fuel Oil 2.3.8. Lube Oil 2.3.9. Asphalt 2.3.10. Petroleum Coke 2.4. Physical Property Characterization Data 2.4.1. Fractionation 2.4.2. True Boiling Point Distillation 2.4.3. ASTM Distillation 2.4.4. Simulated Distillation by Gas Chromatography 2.4.5. API Gravity 2.4.6. Pour Point 2.4.7. Viscosity 2.4.8. Refractive Index 2.4.9. Freezing Point 2.4.10. Aniline Point 2.4.11. Flash Point 2.4.12. Octane Number 2.4.13. Cetane Number 2.4.14. Smoke Point 2.4.15. Reid Vapour Pressure 2.4.16. Water, Salt and Sediment 2.4.17. Molecular Weight 2.5. Chemical Analysis Data 2.5.1. Elemental Analysis 2.5.2. Carbon Residue 2.5.3. Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis 2.5.4. Hydrocarbon Family Analysis 2.5.5. Aromatic Carbon Content 2.5.6. SARA Analysis3. Thermophysical Properties of Petroleum Fractions and Crude Oils 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Basic Input Data 3.2.1. Specific Gravity 3.2.2. Boiling Point Curves 3.2.3. ASTM Distillation 3.2.4. True Boiling Point Distillation 3.2.5. Conversion between ASTM and TBP Distillation 3.3. Pseudo-Components 3.3.1. Breakup of TBP Curve into Pseudo-components 3.3.2. Breakup of TBP Curve into Pseudo-components Using Generalized Form 3.3.3. Calculation of Pseudo-components Specific Gravities 3.4. Thermophysical Properties Calculation 3.4.1. Molecular Weight 3.4.2. Viscosity 3.4.3. Refractive Index 3.4.4. Molecular Type Composition of Petroleum Fractions 3.4.5. Pseudo-critical Constants and Acentric Factors 3.4.6. Generalized Equation for Thermophysical Properties 3.5. Calculation of Enthalpy of Petroleum Fractions 3.6. Estimation of Properties Related to Phase Changes 3.6.1. Cubic Equations of State 3.6.2. Vapour-liquid Equilibrium 3.7. Calculating Properties Utilizing UNISIM Software Questions and Problems4. Crude Distillation 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Process Description 4.3. Operation of Crude Distillation Units 4.3.1. Fractionation 4.3.2. Overflash 4.3.3. Column Pressure 4.3.4. Overhead Temperature 4.3.5. Pre-flash Columns and Crude Column Capacity 4.4. Crude Oil Desalting 4.4.1. Types of Salts in Crude Oil 4.4.2. Desalting Process 4.4.3. Description of Desalter 4.4.4. Desalter Operating Variables 4.5. Vacuum Distillation 4.5.1. Process Description 4.6. Crude Distillation Material Balance 4.6.1. Crude Assay Data 4.6.2. Material Balance 4.6.3. Sulphur Material Balance 4.7. Design of Crude Distillation Units Using Process Simulators Questions and Problems5. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Catalytic Reforming 5.2.1. Reformer Feed Characterization 5.2.2. Role of Reformer in the Refinery and Feed Preparation 5.2.3. Research Octane Number 5.2.4. Reforming Reactions 5.2.5. Thermodynamics of Reforming Reactions 5.2.6. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysts 5.2.7. Process Technology 5.2.8. Material Balance in Reforming 5.2.9. Process Simulation of Reformer by Equilibrium Reactions 5.3. Isomerization of Light Naphtha 5.3.1. Thermodynamics of Isomerization 5.3.2. Isomerization Reactions 5.3.3. Isomerization Catalysts 5.3.4. Isomerization Yields Questions and Problems6. Thermal Cracking and Coking 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Coke Formation 6.3. Thermodynamics of Coking of Light Hydrocarbons 6.4. Visbreaking 6.4.1. Feed Sources 6.4.2. Visbreaking Reactions 6.4.3. Visbreaking Severity 6.4.4. Kinetics of Visbreaking 6.4.5. Product Yield and Properties 6.4.6. Prediction of Visbreaking Yields 6.4.7. Process Description 6.5. Delayed Coking 6.5.1. Role of Delayed Coker 6.5.2. Process Description 6.5.3. Delayed Coking Variables 6.5.4. Types of Coke and their Properties 6.5.5. Coking and Decoking Operation 6.5.6. Delayed Coker Yield Prediction 6.5.7. Process Simulation of Delayed Coking 6.6. Fluid Coking 6.7. Flexicoking 6.7.1. Yield Correlations for Flexicoking Questions and Problems7. Hydroconversion 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Hydrotreating 7.2.1. Objectives of Hydrotreating 7.2.2. Role of Hydrotreating 7.2.3. Chemistry of Hydrotreating 7.2.4. Hydrotreating Catalysts 7.2.5. Thermodynamics of Hydrotreating 7.2.6. Reaction Kinetics 7.2.7. Hydrotreating Processes 7.2.8. Make-up Hydrogen 7.2.9. Operating Conditions 7.2.10. Hydrotreating Correlations 7.2.11. Simulation of ARDS Unit 7.3. Hydrocracking 7.3.1. Role of Hydrocracking in the Refinery 7.3.2. Feeds and Products 7.3.3. Hydrocracking Chemistry 7.3.4. Hydrocracking Catalysts 7.3.5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrocracking 7.3.6. Hydrocracking Processes 7.3.7. Process Configuration 7.3.8. Hydrocracking Severity 7.3.9. Catalytic Dewaxing 7.3.10. Hydrocracking Correlations 7.3.11. Simulation of Hydrocracking Units Question and Problems8. Fluidised Catalytic Cracking 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Role of FCC in the Refinery 8.3. Feedstock and Products 8.4. Fluidisation 8.5. FCC Reactions 8.5.1. Primary Reactions 8.5.2. Secondary Reactions 8.6. Thermodynamics of FCC Reactions 8.7. FCC Catalyst 8.7.1. Zeolite 8.7.2. Matrix 8.8. FCC Configuration 8.9. Process Description 8.10. Modes of Fluidisation in FCC unit 8.11. FCC Yield Correlations 8.12. Material and Energy Balances 8.12.1. Material Balance 8.12.2. Energy Balance 8.13. Kinetic Model for FCC Reactor 8.14. Concentration and Temperature Profiles in the Riser 8.15. Simulation of FCC Unit 8.16. New Technology 8.16.1. Deep Catalytic Cracking 8.16.2. Catalytic Pyrolysis Process 8.16.3. Petro-FCC Questions and Problems9. Product Blending 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Reid Vapour Pressure Blending 9.3. Flash Point Blending 9.4. Pour Point Blending 9.5. Cloud Point Blending 9.6. Aniline Point Blending 9.7. Smoke Point Blending 9.8. Viscosity Blending 9.9. Gasoline Octane Number Blending 9.10. Linear Programming (LP) For Blending Questions and Problems10. Alkylation 10.1. Introduction 10.2. Role of Alkylation and Polymerization Units in the Refinery 10.3. Alkylation Processes 10.3.1. Sulphuric Acid Alkylation Process 10.3.2. Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation 10.3.3. Solid Catalyst Alkylation 10.3.4. AlkyClean Process 10.4. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Alkylation 10.4.1. Effect of Operating Conditions 10.5. Performance of Alkylation Process 10.6. Material Balance Calculations Using Yield Factors 10.7. Simulation of the Alkylation Process Questions and Problems11. Hydrogen Production 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Hydrogen Requirements in Modern Refineries 11.3. Steam Reforming 11.3.1. Flow Process 11.3.2. Feed Preparation 11.3.3. Steam Reforming Reactions 11.3.4. Thermodynamics of Steam Reforming 11.3.5. Operating Variables (Crew and Shumake, 2006) 11.3.6. Reformer Process Simulation 11.4. Product Purification 11.4.1. High-Temperature Shift Converter 11.4.2. Low-Temperature Shift Converter 11.4.3. Carbon Dioxide Removal 11.5. New Developments in Steam Reforming Questions and Problems12. Clean Fuels 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Specifications of Clean Fuels 12.3. Production of Clean Fuels from Crude Oil 12.3.1. Deep Desulphurization 12.4. Production of Clean Fuels from Natural Gas and Coal 12.4.1. Synthesis Gas Production 12.5. Production of Clean Fuels from Biological Sources (Biofuels) 12.5.1. Bio-diesel 12.5.2. Ethanol and Methanol 12.5.3. Bio-Fuel from Flash Pyrolysis 12.5.4. Bio-Fuel from Hydrothermal Upgrading (HTU) 12.5.5. Gasification Routes Questions and Problems13. Residue Upgrading 13.1. Introduction 13.2. Upgrading Options 13.3. Non-catalytic Residue Upgrading Processes 13.3.1. Solvent Deasphalting 13.3.2. Thermal Processes 13.4. Catalytic Processes 13.4.1. Residue-fluidized Catalytic Cracking 13.4.2. Hydroprocessing 13.4.3. Aquaconversion Questions and Problems14. Safety in Petroleum Refineries 14.1. Introduction 14.2. Hazards in Refinery Units 14.2.1. Crude Oil Pre-treatment 14.2.2. Crude Oil Distillation 14.2.3. Catalytic Reforming 14.2.4. Thermal Cracking 14.2.5. Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking 14.2.6. Fluid Catalytic Cracking 14.2.7. Alkylation 14.2.8. Hydrogen Production 14.3. Safety Programs and Regulations 14.4. Accidents and Loss Prevention Measures 14.5. Risk Management and Risk Assessment 14.6. Fire and Explosions 14.7. Hazard Analysis 14.7.1. Worst Case Scenario 14.7.2. Fault Tree Analysis 14.7.3. HAZOP Case study 14.8. Safety Considerations in Plant Layout 14.9. Safe Operation Systems 14.9.1. Pressure Relief Systems 14.9.2. Flare Relief System 14.9.3. Air Emission Monitoring 14.9.4. Water Emission Monitoring 14.9.5. Solid Waste Monitoring 14.10. Emergency Alarms 14.11. Noise in Refinery Questions and Problems15. Acid Gas Processing and Mercaptans Removal 15.1. Introduction 15.2. Absorption of Acid Gases 15.2.1. Chemical Solvents 15.2.2. Physical Solvents 15.2.3. Membrane Absorption 15.3. Sulphur Recovery 15.3.1. Claus Process 15.3.2. Tail Gas Clean Up 15.4. Mercaptans Removal 15.4.1. Gasoline MEROX 15.4.2. Kerosene MEROX Question and Problems16. Refinery Economics 16.1. Introduction 16.2. Refining Capacity 16.3. Refining Costs 16.3.1. Capital Costs 16.3.2. Operating Costs 16.3.3. Factors Affecting Refinery Costs 16.4. Refining Margins 16.5. Refinery Complexity 16.6. Economic Analysis 16.6.1. Cash Flow Diagram 16.6.2. Time Value of Money 16.6.3. Inflation 16.6.4. Taxation and After-tax Cash Flow 16.6.5. Profitability and Project Evaluation 16.6.6. Case Study: Refinery Economic Evaluation 16.7. Global Trends Questions and Problems17. Environmental Aspects in Refining 17.1. Introduction 17.2. Wastes in Refinery Units 17.2.1. Desalter 17.2.2. Crude Distillation 17.2.3. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization 17.2.4. Thermal Cracking and Coking 17.2.5. Hydrocracking 17.2.6. Hydrotreating 17.2.7. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) 17.2.8. Alkylation 17.2.9. Asphalt Production, Solvent Extraction and Dewaxing 17.2.10. Hydrogen Production 17.3. Waste Management 17.3.1. Gas Waste 17.3.2. Wastewater 17.3.3. Solid Waste Questions and Problems18. Overall Refinery Case Study 18.1. Introduction 18.2. The Case StudyAppendicesAppendix A Conversion FactorsAppendix B Definition of TermsAppendix C Process Simulator (UNISIM) ManualAppendix D Research Octane Number for HydrocarbonsNotationIndex