Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing book cover

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient description of the fuel cell to show how it affects the fuel reformer. By focusing on the fundamentals, this book aims to be a source of information now and in the future. By avoiding time-sensitive information/analysis (e.g., economics) it serves as a single source of information for scientists and engineers in fuel processing technology. The material is presented in such a way that this book will serve as a reference for graduate level courses, fuel cell developers, and fuel cell researchers.

Audience

Professionals working in the energy market: transportation, residential, industrial, military, aerospace, fuel cell/fuel reforming industries (petrochemical, oil & gas); academics; and government energy departments and government research libraries

Hardbound, 568 Pages

Published: April 2011

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-53563-4

Contents


  • Preface

    Editors Biography

    Contributors

    1. Introduction to Fuel Processing

    1.1. Clean Energy

    1.2. Fuel Cells

    1.3. Fuel Processors

    1.4. Reforming Modes

    1.5. Thermal Integration of the Fuel Processor and Fuel Cell

    1.6. Challenges for Fuel Cells and Fuel Processors

    1.7. Scope of This Book

    References

    2. Fuel Cells

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Fuel Cell Fundamentals

    2.3. Fuel Cell Degradation

    2.4. Fuel Cell Operation

    2.5. Fuel Cell Types

    References

    3. Fuels for Fuel Cells

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Fossil Fuels

    3.3. Oxygenated Fuels

    References

    4. Steam Reforming for Fuel Cells

    4.1. Routes to Hydrogen

    4.2. Steam Reforming of Natural Gas

    4.3. Steam Reforming of Other Feedstocks

    4.4. Hydrogen Production

    4.5. Conclusions

    References

    5. Catalytic Partial Oxidation

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Thermodynamics

    5.3. Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics

    5.4. Light Hydrocarbons

    5.5. Higher Hydrocarbons

    5.6. Oxygenated Hydrocarbons

    5.7. Future Development and Applications

    References

    6. Oxidative Steam Reforming

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Thermodynamics

    6.3. Mechanism

    6.4. Kinetics

    6.5. Catalytic OSR of Hydrocarbons

    6.6. Future Work

    References

    7. Dry (CO2) Reforming

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Thermodynamics

    7.3. Catalysts for Dry Reforming of Methane

    7.4. Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Dry Reforming of Methane

    7.5. Dry Reforming of Ethane

    7.6. Dry Reforming of Propane

    7.7. Reforming of Higher Hydrocarbons

    7.8. Dry Reforming of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons

    7.9. Summary

    References

    8. Plasma Reforming for H2-Rich Synthesis Gas

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Types of Plasmas Used in Fuel Processing Applications

    8.3. Plasma as an Alternative to Traditional Catalysts in Fuel Reforming

    8.4. Plasma Reforming of Methane

    8.5. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons

    8.6. Combined Plasma-Catalytic Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels into Hydrogen-Rich Synthesis Gas

    8.7. Conclusions and Future Trends

    References

    9. Nonconventional Reforming Methods

    9.1. Scope of the Chapter

    9.2. Decomposition of Hydrocarbons

    9.3. Supercritical Reforming

    9.4. Non-catalytic Thermal Reforming in Porous Media

    9.5. Radio Frequency (RF)-Assisted Reforming

    9.6. Pre-reforming

    References

    10. Deactivation of Reforming Catalysts

    10.1. Scope of This Chapter

    10.2. Introduction e General Mechanisms for Fuel Reforming

    10.3. Thermally Induced Deactivation

    10.4. Sulfur Poisoning

    10.5. Coke/Carbon Deposition

    10.6. Kinetics of the Deactivation Processes

    10.7. Conclusions

    References

    11. Desulfurization for Fuel Cells

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Scope

    11.3. Gas Phase Desulfurization Upstream of Reformer

    11.4. Liquid Phase Desulfurization Upstream of Reformer

    11.5. Syngas Desulfurization Downstream of Reformer or Gasifier

    11.6. Integration of Sulfur Removal

    11.7. Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    12. Syngas Conditioning

    12.1. Introduction

    12.1. Water Gas Shift

    12.2. Preferential Oxidation (PrOX)

    12.3. Selective Catalytic Methanation of CO (SMET)

    References

    13. Direct Reforming Fuel Cells

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Thermodynamics

    13.3. Benefits of Internal Reforming

    13.4. Carbon Formation

    13.5. Experimental Studies on Low O/C Operation

    13.6. Kinetics of Steam Reforming on Nickel-YSZ Anodes

    13.7. Poisons for SOFC Anodes

    13.8. Concluding Remarks

    References

    14. Reactor Design for Fuel Processing

    14.1. Design Requirements of the Fuel Processing Unit

    14.2. Design Requirements of WGS Unit

    14.3. Design Requirements of Carbon Monoxide Removal Unit

    14.4. Design Requirements of Desulfurization Unit

    14.5. Types of Reactors Used in Fuel Processing

    14.6. Modeling and Design of Fuel Processing Reactors

    Acknowledgments

    References

    15. Balance of Plant

    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. Fuel, Air, and Water Management

    15.3. Fuel Injection System

    15.4. Heat Management Systems

    15.5. Other Components

    15.6. Conclusion and Future Directions

    References

    Appendix A

    Appendix B

    Appendix C

    Index

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