Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing

Edited by

  • Dushyant Shekhawat, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Morgan Town, WV, USA
  • J.J. Spivey, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
  • David Berry, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Morgan Town, WV, USA

Fuel Cells: Technologies for Fuel Processing provides an overview of the most important aspects of fuel reforming to the generally interested reader, researcher, technologist, teacher, student, or engineer. The topics covered include all aspects of fuel reforming: fundamental chemistry, different modes of reforming, catalysts, catalyst deactivation, fuel desulfurization, reaction engineering, novel reforming concepts, thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer issues, system design, and recent research and development. While no attempt is made to describe the fuel cell itself, there is sufficient description of the fuel cell to show how it affects the fuel reformer. By focusing on the fundamentals, this book aims to be a source of information now and in the future. By avoiding time-sensitive information/analysis (e.g., economics) it serves as a single source of information for scientists and engineers in fuel processing technology. The material is presented in such a way that this book will serve as a reference for graduate level courses, fuel cell developers, and fuel cell researchers.
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Professionals working in the energy market: transportation, residential, industrial, military, aerospace, fuel cell/fuel reforming industries (petrochemical, oil & gas); academics; and government energy departments and government research libraries


Book information

  • Published: April 2011
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-444-53563-4

Table of Contents


Editors Biography


1. Introduction to Fuel Processing

1.1. Clean Energy

1.2. Fuel Cells

1.3. Fuel Processors

1.4. Reforming Modes

1.5. Thermal Integration of the Fuel Processor and Fuel Cell

1.6. Challenges for Fuel Cells and Fuel Processors

1.7. Scope of This Book


2. Fuel Cells

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Fuel Cell Fundamentals

2.3. Fuel Cell Degradation

2.4. Fuel Cell Operation

2.5. Fuel Cell Types


3. Fuels for Fuel Cells

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Fossil Fuels

3.3. Oxygenated Fuels


4. Steam Reforming for Fuel Cells

4.1. Routes to Hydrogen

4.2. Steam Reforming of Natural Gas

4.3. Steam Reforming of Other Feedstocks

4.4. Hydrogen Production

4.5. Conclusions


5. Catalytic Partial Oxidation

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Thermodynamics

5.3. Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics

5.4. Light Hydrocarbons

5.5. Higher Hydrocarbons

5.6. Oxygenated Hydrocarbons

5.7. Future Development and Applications


6. Oxidative Steam Reforming

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Thermodynamics

6.3. Mechanism

6.4. Kinetics

6.5. Catalytic OSR of Hydrocarbons

6.6. Future Work


7. Dry (CO2) Reforming

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Thermodynamics

7.3. Catalysts for Dry Reforming of Methane

7.4. Reaction Mechanism and Kinetics of Dry Reforming of Methane

7.5. Dry Reforming of Ethane

7.6. Dry Reforming of Propane

7.7. Reforming of Higher Hydrocarbons

7.8. Dry Reforming of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons

7.9. Summary


8. Plasma Reforming for H2-Rich Synthesis Gas

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Types of Plasmas Used in Fuel Processing Applications

8.3. Plasma as an Alternative to Traditional Catalysts in Fuel Reforming

8.4. Plasma Reforming of Methane

8.5. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons

8.6. Combined Plasma-Catalytic Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels into Hydrogen-Rich Synthesis Gas

8.7. Conclusions and Future Trends


9. Nonconventional Reforming Methods

9.1. Scope of the Chapter

9.2. Decomposition of Hydrocarbons

9.3. Supercritical Reforming

9.4. Non-catalytic Thermal Reforming in Porous Media

9.5. Radio Frequency (RF)-Assisted Reforming

9.6. Pre-reforming


10. Deactivation of Reforming Catalysts

10.1. Scope of This Chapter

10.2. Introduction e General Mechanisms for Fuel Reforming

10.3. Thermally Induced Deactivation

10.4. Sulfur Poisoning

10.5. Coke/Carbon Deposition

10.6. Kinetics of the Deactivation Processes

10.7. Conclusions


11. Desulfurization for Fuel Cells

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Scope

11.3. Gas Phase Desulfurization Upstream of Reformer

11.4. Liquid Phase Desulfurization Upstream of Reformer

11.5. Syngas Desulfurization Downstream of Reformer or Gasifier

11.6. Integration of Sulfur Removal

11.7. Conclusions and Future Directions


12. Syngas Conditioning

12.1. Introduction

12.1. Water Gas Shift

12.2. Preferential Oxidation (PrOX)

12.3. Selective Catalytic Methanation of CO (SMET)


13. Direct Reforming Fuel Cells

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Thermodynamics

13.3. Benefits of Internal Reforming

13.4. Carbon Formation

13.5. Experimental Studies on Low O/C Operation

13.6. Kinetics of Steam Reforming on Nickel-YSZ Anodes

13.7. Poisons for SOFC Anodes

13.8. Concluding Remarks


14. Reactor Design for Fuel Processing

14.1. Design Requirements of the Fuel Processing Unit

14.2. Design Requirements of WGS Unit

14.3. Design Requirements of Carbon Monoxide Removal Unit

14.4. Design Requirements of Desulfurization Unit

14.5. Types of Reactors Used in Fuel Processing

14.6. Modeling and Design of Fuel Processing Reactors



15. Balance of Plant

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Fuel, Air, and Water Management

15.3. Fuel Injection System

15.4. Heat Management Systems

15.5. Other Components

15.6. Conclusion and Future Directions


Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C