Table of ContentsPreface.Acknowledgments.Biographies. Contributors. Regulatory Issues, Epidemiology, and Emerging Viruses1. Current issues in the regulation and approval of antiviral drugs for hepatitis (B.A. Styrt, R. Fleischer, T. Wu, H.M. Jolson). 2. Molecular and serum epidemiology of HBV and HCV infection and the impact of antiviral agents in China (Xuefeng Liu, R.F. Schinazi). 3. New viruses and their relationship to hepatitis (H.J. Alter). Immunology and Vaccines4. Virus-specific CD8+ cell immune responses in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection (G.J.M. Webster, G.M. Dusheiko).5. Cell-mediated immunity and the outcome of HCV infection in chimpanzees (C.M. Walker). 6. Adoptive immune transfer as a therapeutic approach for persistent hepatitis B virus infection (D. Shouval). 7. Perspectives in HCV vaccine development (E. Depla). Viral Hepatitis B and C Infections In Children8. Maternal/fetal/pediatric HBV and HCV infections (R.A. Schreiber). 9. Effects of interferon treatment in children with post-transfusional chronic hepatitis B (M. Pop, et al.). Genetics, Pathology and Viral Diagnosis10. Effects of genotypic variations on hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B structure and activity (Zhi Hong, et al.). 11. Compartmentalization of hepatitis C viral quasispecies (Xiaofeng Fan, A.C. Lyra, A.M. DiBisceglie). 12. In situ localization of PCR-amplified hepatitis C Virus RNA on human erythrocytes (S. Simon, et al.). 13. Nucleic acid-based antiviral approaches to HBV (H.C. Spangenberg, J.R. Wands). 14. In vitro phenotype of HBV variants in patients with fulminant hepatitis B (M. Sterneck, T. Kalinina). 15. Evaluation of three commercially available HBV viral load assays: dynamic range, precision, and clinical utility (A. Snow, F. Myrick, C. Wakeford, B. McCreedy). Cell Systems and Animal Models16. Cell lines that allow regulated expression of HCV proteins: principles and applications (D. Moradpour, et al.).17. Novel Hepatitis C virus-positive cell line derived from a chimpanzee with chronic HCV infection (B.G. Pavlova, Z. Schaff, G. Eder).18. A transgenic mouse lineage useful for testing antivirals targeting hepatitis B virus (P.L. Marion, et al.).19. Evaluation of therapies for hepatitis B virus in the HBV transgenic SCID mouse model (M. Kamkolkar, et al.).Drug Discovery and Development: Novel Therapeutics for Hepatitis B and C 20. Novel approaches in the management of chronic HBV infection (A. Bartholomeusz, P. Furman, S. Locarnini). 21. Antiviral &bgr;-L-nucleosides specific for hepatitis B virus infection (M.L. Bryant, et al.).22. Toxicological study of the anti-HBV agent &bgr;-L-thymidine (E.G. Bridges, et al.).23. Pharmacokinetics of &bgr;-L-thymidine and &bgr;-L-2'-deoxycytidine in woodchucks and monkeys (E. Cretton-Scott, et al.).24. Clevudine: A novel 1-&bgr;-L nucleoside analogue in clinical development for the treatment of HBV infection (G.R. Painter, et al.).25. Glucosidase/protein folding inhibitors as possible mutation proof anti hepatitis B and C agents (T.M. Block, et al.).26. Nuclease resistant ribozymes directed against hepatitis C virus RNA plus and minus strand inhibit viral replication of a HCV/poliovirus chimera (L.M. Blatt, et al.). 27. Mechanism of laser therapy of viral hepatitis (V. Ovsiannikov). Drug Discovery and Development: Resistance and Therapeutic Strategies in Humans28. Nomenclature for antiviral resistant human hepatitis B virus mutations in the polymerase region (L.J. Stuyver, et al.).29. Complex genotypic changes during failure of HBV nucleoside analogue therapy (D. Pillay, et al.).30. Lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B: efficacy, safety, resistance, and current treatment issues (N.A. Brown). 31. Clinical experience and follow-up with lamivudine in the Asian population (Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen). 32. Impaired response to 5 mU/day interferon treatment in African-Americans with chronic hepatitis C (A. Colantoni, N. De Maria, D.H. Van Thiel). 33. Novel combined approaches to hepatitis C therapies (M. Cornberg, M.P. Manns). 34. Consensus + pegylated interferon (J. Heathcote). 35. Impact of interferon alfa-2b and of combination with ribavirin on progression of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (T. Poynard, et al.).36. Decorin expression in chronic hepatitis C: effect of interferon alpha treatment (I. Kovaloszky, K. Jármay, J. Dudás, Z. Schaff).37. Preclinical and clinical development of the anti-HIV, anti-HBV oxathiolane nucleoside analog emtricitabine (G. Painter, L.T. Rimsky et al.).38. CD81 receptor expression in human cells: Implications for HCV therapeutics (P.M. Tharnish, A.S. Juodawlkis et al.). Prevention and Treatment Options for Hepatocellular Carcinoma 39. Resolution of hepatic fibrosis as a consequence of interferon therapy for hepatitis C (Y. Shiratori, H. Yoshida, M. Omata). 40. Symptomatic therapies for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma developing in chronic hepatitis C (H. Yotsuyanagi, Y. Miyakawa, S. Lino). 41. Mutations of the core gene sequence of HCV from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China (T. Omoya, et al.). 42. Characterization of hepatitis B virus X variants that are integrated and expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas (Wei Ning Chen, Chong Jin Oon). Subject Index. Author Index.