Fractal Models in Exploration Geophysics

Applications to Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

By

  • V.P. Dimri, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India
  • R.P. Srivastava, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India
  • Nimisha Vedanti, CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India

Researchers in the field of exploration geophysics have developed new methods for the acquisition, processing and interpretation of gravity and magnetic data, based on detailed investigations of bore wells around the globe. Fractal Models in Exploration Geophysics describes fractal-based models for characterizing these complex subsurface geological structures.

The authors introduce the inverse problem using a fractal approach which they then develop with the implementation of a global optimization algorithm for seismic data: very fast simulated annealing (VFSA). This approach provides high-resolution inverse modeling results-particularly useful for reservoir characterization.

View full description

Audience

Exploration and reservoir geophysicists, students

 

Book information

  • Published: May 2012
  • Imprint: ELSEVIER
  • ISBN: 978-0-08-045158-9


Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction of Fractals and Application to Gravity and Magnetic Data
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Fractal and Scaling
1.3 Behavior of Physical Properties
1.4 Interpretation of Gravity and Magnetic Data
1.5 Spectral Analysis
1.6 Scaling Spectral Analysis
1.7 Nonstationary Gravity and Magnetic Profiles
1.8 Field Example: Kuppam-Palani, South India
1.9 Characterization of Time Series for Fractal Behaviour
1.10 Simulation of 1D/2D Fractal Time/Space Series
1.11 Examples: Synthesis of Fractal Time Series
1.12 Fractal Dimension and Design of Geophysical Surveys
1.13 Conclusion

Chapter 2: Structural Modeling Using Fractals
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Tessellation
2.3 Automated Perturbation of Model: Some Synthetic Examples
2.4 Computation of Gravity Response: A Case Study
2.5 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Fractal Inversion
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Seismic Inversion
3.3 Generation of Fractal-Based Initial Model
3.4 Very Fast Simulated Annealing
3.5 Stochastic Inversion
3.6 Deterministic Inversion
3.7 Analysis of Results
3.8 Conclusion

Chapter 4: Seismic Reservoir Monitoring
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Rock Physics Study
4.3 Changes Due to Pressure
4.4 Acquisition of 4D Sseismic Data
4.5 Repeatability
4.6 Processing of 4D Seismic Data
4.7 Analysis of 4D Seismic Data
4.8 Poststack Versus Prestack Analysis
4.9 Fractal-Based 4D Inversion
4.10 Time-Lapse AVO: Distinguish Between Pressure and Saturation Changes
4.11 Conclusion with Limitations and Challenges in Time-Lapse Study

Chapter 5: Reservoir Geophysics: Some Basic Concepts
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Hydrocarbon Reservoir
5.3 Reservoir Rock Properties
5.4 Fractal Porosity
5.5 Permeability
5.6 Reservoir Rock Capillary Properties
5.7 Properties of Reservoir Fluids
5.8 Conclusion

Chapter 6: Fluid Flow and Recovery
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fluid Flow in the Reservoir
6.3 Fractal Behavior of Flow and Media
6.4 Oil Recovery
6.5 Material Balance Equations
6.6 Mechanism of Secondary Recovery
6.7 Water Alternating Gas (CO2) Injection
6.8 Numerical Reservoir Simulation: An Overview
6.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reservoir Simulation
6.10 Conclusions