Forest Ecosystems

Analysis at Multiple Scales


  • Richard Waring, B.S. 1957, Forestry, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN M.S. 1959, Forestry (Botany), University of Minnesota Ph.D. 1963, Botany (Soils), University of California, Berkeley, Oregon State University, Corvallis, U.S.A.
  • Steven Running, University of Montana, Missoula, U.S.A.

This revision maintains the position of Forest Ecosystems as the one source for the latest information on the advanced methods that have enhanced our understating of forest ecosystems. Further understanding is given to techniques to explore the changes in climatic cycles, the implications of wide-scale pollution, fire and other ecological disturbances that have a global effect. The inclusion of models, equations, graphs, and tabular examples provides readers with a full understanding of the methods and techniques.
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researchers and individuals interested in ecology, forestry, plant and environmental sciences; advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, faculty in forestry and ecology programs


Book information

  • Published: July 2007
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-370605-8


Praise for previous editions: "Represents a tour de force of modeling, synthesis and integration. I doubt there is anyone else who would be able to pull all this together in a credible way. The authors have succeeded admirably in capturing the essence of landscape processes, their description and simulation." --Ron Neilson, USDA Forest Service and Oregon State University, Corvallis "A nice synthesis and textbookfor forest ecosystems. The depth and breadth of their synthesis is admirable, and the work is well-balanced. The book will be a major contribution." --Michael G. Ryan, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins "There is a huge wealth of exciting information in this book. I loved the focus on models. This will be a great book and it will be widely used." --Kate Lajtha, Oregon State University, Corvallis "The idea of putting this ecosystem textbook into a modeling framework is a very significant improvement over the 1985 book. Putting scaling as the over-arching theme makes this book most timely." --Hank Margolis, NASA Biospheric Sciences Branch

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition


1. Forest Ecosystem Analysis at Multiple Time and Space Scales

I. Introduction

II. The Scientific Domain of Forest Ecosystem Analysis

III. The Space/Time Domain of Ecosystem Analysis

IV. Time and Space Scaling from the Stand/Seasonal Level

V. Management Applications of Ecosystem Analysis

VI. Related Textbooks

VII. Web Site for Updated Materials

Section I. Introduction to Analysis of Seasonal Cycles of Water, Carbon, and Minerals through Forest Stands

2. Water Cycles

I. Introduction

II. Heat and Water Vapor Transfer from Vegetation

III. Water Flow through Trees

IV. Water Storage and Losses from Snow

V. Water Flow across and through Soil

VI. Coupled Water Balance Models

VII. Summary

3. Carbon Cycle

I. Introduction

II. Photosynthesis

III. Autotrophic Respiration

IV. Heterotrophic Respiration

V. Modeling Photosynthesis and Respiration

VI. Net Primary Production and Allocation

VII. Comparison of Forest Ecosystem Models

VIII. Summary

4. Mineral Cycles

I. Introduction

II. Plant Processes Affecting Nutrient Cycling

III. Sources of Nutrients

IV. Soil and Litter Processes

V. Mass Balance and Models of Mineral Cycles

VI. Summary

Section II. Introduction to Temporal Scaling

5. Temporal Changes in Forest Structure and Function

I. Introduction

II. Structural Stages in Stand Development

III. Functional Responses of Stands at Different Stages in Development

IV. Looking Back in Time

V. Ecosystem Models, Projections Forward in Time

VI. Summary

6. Susceptibility and Response of Forests to Disturbance

I. Introduction

II. Biotic Factors

III. Abiotic Factors

IV. Summary

Section III. Introduction to Spatial Scaling and Spatial/Temporal Modeling

7. Spatial Scaling Methods for Landscape and Regional Ecosystem Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Abiotic Site Variables

III. Providing the Driving Variables, Climatology

IV. Describing the Ecosystem

V. Spatially Explicit Landscape Pattern Analysis

VI. Data Layer Inconsistencies

VII. Summary

8. Regional and Landscape Ecological Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Horizontal Connections: Biotic Analysis of Forest Patterns

III. Vertical Connections: Forest-Atmosphere Interactions

IV. Vertical and Horizontal Connections: Regional Biogeochemistry

V. Summary

9. The Role of Forests in Global Ecology

I. Introduction

II. Global Forest Distribution

III. Forest-Climate Interactions

IV. Forests in the Global Carbon Cycle

V. Forests and Biodiversity

VI. Sustainability of Global Forests

VII. Summary

10. Advances in Eddy-Flux Analyses, Remote Sensing, and Evidence of Climate Change

I. Introduction

II. Eddy-Covariance Fluxes

III. New Remote Sensing of Forests

IV. Climate Change and Forests