Food Process Engineering and Technology book cover

Food Process Engineering and Technology

The past 30 years have seen the establishment of food engineering both as an academic discipline and as a profession. Combining scientific depth with practical usefulness, this book serves as a tool for graduate students as well as practicing food engineers, technologists and researchers looking for the latest information on transformation and preservation processes as well as process control and plant hygiene topics.

Audience
Students and professionals in food engineering and food science and technology

Hardbound, 720 Pages

Published: July 2013

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-415923-5

Contents

  • Introduction-""Food is Life""

    CHAPTER 1

    Physical Properties of Food Materials

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Mechanical Properties

    1.3 Thermal Properties

    1.4 Electrical Properties

    1.5 Structure

    1.6 Water Activity

    1.7 Phase Transistion Phenomena in Foods

    CHAPTER 2

    Fluid Flow

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Elements of Fluid Dynamics

    2.3 Flow properties of fluids

    2.4 Transportation of fluids

    2.5 Flownbsp;of Particulate Solids (Powder Flow)

    CHAPTER 3

    Heat and mass transfer, Basic principles

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Basic relations in transport phenomena

    3.3 Conductive Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.4 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.5 Unsteady State Heat and Mass Transfer

    3.6 Heat Transfer by Radiation

    3.7 Heat Exchangers

    3.8 Microwave Heating

    3.9 Ohmic Heating

    CHAPTER 4

    REACTION KINETICS

    4.1 INTRODUCTION

    4.2 BASIC CONCEPTS

    4.3 KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    4.4 RESIDENCE TIME AND RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION

    CHAPTER 5

    ELEMENTS OF PROCESS CONTROL

    5.1 INTRODUCTION

    5.2 BASIC CONCEPTS

    5.3 BASIC CONTROL STRUCTURES

    5.4 THE BLOCK DIAGRAM

    5.5 INPUT, OUTPUT AND PROCESS DYNAMICS

    5.6 CONTROL MODES (CONTROL ALGORITHMS)

    5.7 THE PHYSICAL ELEMENTS OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM

    CHAPTER 6

    SIZE REDUCTION

    6.1 INTRODUCTION

    6.2 PARTICLE SIZE AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    6.3 SIZE REDUCTION OF SOLIDS, BASIC PRINCIPLES

    6.4 SIZE REDUCTION OF SOLIDS, EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

    CHAPTER 7

    MIXING

    7.1 INTRODUCTION

    7.2 MIXING OF FLUIDS (BLENDING)

    7.3 KNEADING

    7.4 IN-FLOW MIXING

    7.5 MIXING OF PARTICULATE SOLIDS

    7.6 HOMOGENIZATION

    CHAPTER 8

    FILTRATION

    8.1 INTRODUCTION

    8.2 DEPTH FILTRATION

    8.3 SURFACE (BARRIER) FILTRATION

    8.4 FILTRATION EQUIPMENT

    8.5 EXPRESSION

    CHAPTER 9

    CENTRIFUGATION

    9.1 INTRODUCTION

    9.2 BASIC PRINCIPLES

    9.3 CENTRIFUGES

    9.4 CYCLONES

    CHAPTER 10

    MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    10.1 INTRODUCTION

    10.2 TANGENTIAL FILTRATION

    10.3 MASS TRANSFER THROUGH MF AND UF MEMBRANES

    10.4 MASS TRANSFER IN REVERSE OSMOSIS

    10.5 MEMBRANE systems

    10.6 MEMBRANE PROCESSES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    10.7 ELECTRODIALYSIS

    Chapter 11

    EXTRACTION

    11.1 INTRODUCTION

    11.2 SOLID - LIQUID EXTRACTION (LEACHING)

    11.3 Supercritical fluid extraction

    11.4 LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    CHAPTER 12

    ADSORPTION AND ION EXCHANGE

    12.1 INTRODUCTION

    12.2 EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS

    12.3 BATCH ADSORPTION

    12.4 ADSORPTION IN COLUMNS

    12.5 ION EXCHANGE

    Chapter 13

    DISTILLATION

    13.1 INTRODUCTION

    13.2 Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLA)

    13.3 CONTINUOUS FLASH DISTILLATION

    13.4 BATCH (DIFFERENTIAL) DISTILLATION

    13.5 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

    13.6 STEAM DISTILLATION

    13.7 DISTILLATION OF WINES AND SPIRITS

    CHAPTER 14

    CRYSTALLIZATION AND DISSOLUTION

    14.1 INTRODUCTION

    14.2 CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS

    14. 3 CRYSTALLIZATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    14.4 DISSOLUTION

    Chapter 15

    EXTRUSION

    15.1 INTRODUCTION

    15.2 THE SINGLE - SCREW EXTRUDER

    15.3 Twin-screw extruders

    15.4 EFFECT ON FOODS

    15.5 FOOD APPLICATIONS OF EXTRUSION

    CHAPTER 16

    SPOILAGE AND PRESERVATION OF FOODS

    16.1 Mechanisms of food spoilage

    16.2 Food preservation processes

    16.3 COMBINED PROCESSES (THE ""HURDLE EFFECT"")

    16.4 PACKAGING

    CHAPTER 17

    THERMAL PROCESSING

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 The kinetics of thermal inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes

    17.3 Lethality of thermal processes

    17.4 Optimization of thermal processes with respect to quality

    17.5 Heat transfer considerations in thermal processing

    Chapter 18

    THERMAL PROCESSES, METHODS AND EQUIPMENT

    18.1 INTRODUCTION

    18.2 Thermal processing in hermetically closed containers

    18.3 THERMAL PROCESSING IN BULK, BEFORE PACKAGINGnbsp;

    CHAPTER 19

    REFRIGERATION, CHILLING AND FREEZING

    19.1 INTRODUCTION

    19.2 Effect of temperature on food spoilage

    19.3 FREEZING

    CHAPTER 20

    REFRIGERATION, EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

    20.1 SOURCES OF REFRIGERATION

    20.2 COLD STORAGE AND REFRIGERATED TRANSPORT

    20.3 CHILLERS AND FREEZERS

    CHAPTER 21

    EVAPORATION

    21.1 INTRODUCTION

    21.2 MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE

    21.3 HEAT TRANSFER

    21.4 ENERGY MANAGEMENT

    21.5 CONDENSERS

    21.6 EVAPORATORS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    21.7 EFFECT OF EVAPORATION ON FOOD QUALITY

    CHAPTER 22

    DEHYDRATION

    22.1 INTRODUCTION

    22.2 THERMODYNAMICS OF MOIST AIR (PSYCHROMETRY)

    22.3 CONVECTIVE DRYING (AIR DRYING)

    22.4 DRYING UNDER VARYING EXTERNAL CONDITIONS

    22.5 CONDUCTIVE (BOILING) DRYING

    22.6 DRYERS IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    22.7 ISSUES IN FOOD DRYING TECHNOLOGY

    22.8 ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN DRYING

    22.9 OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION

    CHAPTER 23

    FREEZE-DRYING (LYOPHILIZATION) AND FREEZE CONCENTRATION

    23.1 INTRODUCTION

    23.2 SUBLIMATION OF WATER

    23.3 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN FREEZE DRYING

    23.4 Freeze drying, in practice

    23.5 FREEZE CONCENTRATION

    CHAPTER 24

    FRYING, BAKING, ROASTING

    24.1 INTRODUCTION

    24.2 FRYING

    24.3 BAKING AND ROASTING

    CHAPTER 25

    IONIZING IRRADIATION AND OTHER NON-THERMAL PRESERVATION PROCESSES

    25.1 PRESERVATION BY IONIZING RADIATIONS

    25.2 High hydrostatic pressure preservation

    25.3 PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS (PEF)

    25.4 PULSED INTENSE LIGHT

    Chapter 26

    FOOD PACKAGING

    26.1 INTRODUCTION

    26.2 PACKAGING MATERIALS

    26.3 THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE PACKAGE

    26.4 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    CHAPTER 27

    CLEANING, DISINFECTION, SANITATION

    27.1 INTRODUCTION

    27.2 CLEANING KINETICS AND MECHANISMS

    27.3 KINETICS OF DISINFECTION

    27.4 CLEANING OF RAW MATERIALS

    27.5 CLEANING OF PLANTS AND EQUIPMENT

    27.6 CLEANING OF PACKAGES

    27.7 ODOR ABATEMENT

    APPENDIX

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