Fluid Flow Measurement

A Practical Guide to Accurate Flow Measurement


  • Paul J. LaNasa, Consultant, Houston, TX, USA
  • E. Loy Upp, Former Vice President and Director of Technology, Daniel Industries, and Consultant, Houston, TX, USA

There is a tendency to approach flow measurement as a highly theoretical and technical subject, but what most influences quality measurement is the practical application of meters, metering principles, and quality metering equipment. Fluid Flow Measurement reviews basic laws and principles, an overview of the physical characteristics and behaviour of gases and liquids, and takes a look at the dynamics of flow. The author examines applications of specific meters, readout, and related devices and proving systems. He also offers practical guidelines for the meter in use, condition of the fluid, details of the entire metering system, installation and operation, and the timing and quality of maintenance.

This book is dedicated to condensing and sharing the author's extensive experience in solving flow measurement problems with design engineers, operating personnel-from top supervisors to the newest testers-academic engineers, flow meter equipment manufacturers, worldwide practitioners, theorists, auditors, and people just getting into the business.

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Professionals involved with pipelines, field production, storage, terminals, refineries, and chemical/process plants and facilities involved with hydrocarbon gases and liquids


Book information

  • Published: April 2014
  • ISBN: 978-0-12-409524-3


Introduction; Chapter Overview; Requisites of Flow Measurement; Background of Flow; Measurement; History of Flow Measurement; Definition of Terms; Basic Flow; Measurement Laws; Gas Laws; Expansion of Liquids; Fundamental Flow Equation; ASME; References; Types of Fluid Flow Measurement; Custody Transfer; Non-Custody Transfer Measurement; References; Basic Reference Standards; American Petroleum Institute (API); American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME); Measurement Standards; Sampling Methods; Miscellaneous Standards; Instrument Society of America (ISA); From Theory to Practice; "Ideal" Installations; Non-Ideal Installations; Fluid Characteristics Data; References; Fluids; Fluids - Liquids and GasesFluid Characteristics; References; Flow; Required Characteristics; Measurement Units; Installation Requirements; Flow Pattern; References; Operations; Operational Considerations; Operational Influences on Gas Measurement; Uncertainty; Linear Meter; Element Uncertainty Examples; Other Fluid Flow Considerations; Maintenance Meter Equipment; Gas Measurement Maintenance; Effects of Liquids and Solids on Orifice Measurement; Effects on Other Meters; General Maintenance of Liquid Meters; Specific Liquid Maintenance Problems; Measurement and Meters; Meter Characteristics; Types of Meters; Differential (Head) Meters; Orifice Meter; Meter Design Changed; Orifice Meter Description; Sizing; Equations; Maintenance; Flow Nozzles; Venturi Meters; Venturi Installation; Other Head Meters; Intrusive Linear and Special Meters; Non-Intrusive Meters; Coriolis Meters; Magnetic Meters; Ultrasonic Meters; Dopplers; Transit-Time Ultrasonic Meters; Intrusive Meters; Multiphase Meters; Positive Displacement Meters; Turbine Meters; Vortex Shedding Meters; Other and Special Purpose Meters; References; Readouts and Related Devices; Electronics; Related Devices; Crude Oil Sampling; Natural Gas Sampling; Calorimetry; References; Proving Systems; Liquid Provers; Gas Provers; Critical Flow Provers; Central Test Facility; References; "Loss and Unaccounted for" Fluids; Introduction; Liquid; Gas; Auditing; Introduction; Gas Meters; Liquid Meters; Analysis Equipment; Audit Principles; Objective; Procedures; Evidence; Definitive Testing; Sources of Information; Contract Review; Field Measurement Equipment Review; Data Review and Comparison; Auditing Gas Measurement Systems; Chart Review; Auditing Liquid Measurement; Finalizing the Audit; Conclusion; Index