Fire Fighting Pumping Systems at Industrial Facilities


  • Dennis P. Nolan, Loss Prevention Manager and Chief Fire Prevention Engineer, Saudi Aramco

This book describes fixed firewater pump installations for industrial facilities from the viewpoint of the end users, fire protection engineers, loss prevention professionals, and those just entering a career in which decisions about fire pump installations must be made. Therefore much background information is given for the necessary requirements and usefulness of a firewater pump and the services that interface with it. This book's primary objective is the provision of practical information and basic background design principles on the application of fixed pumps for fire fighting purposes at industrial facilities, both onshore and offshore. Where specific details are necessary and pertinent to the discussion they are provided, otherwise, these can be found from the applicable fire codes and engineering practices to be applied to the facility. Experience from the installation of fire pumps in the petroleum and chemical industries, historical data, manufacturers specification sheets and regulatory code requirements have been drawn upon for the preparation of the information in this book.
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Fire protection engineers, loss prevention professionals, and those just entering a career in which decisions about fire pump installations must be made.


Book information

  • Published: December 1998
  • ISBN: 978-0-8155-1428-2

Table of Contents

1. Historical Applications of Firewater Pumping Systems Ancient Water Pumps Reciprocating Hand and Steam Driven Fire Pumps Modern Fire Pumps Rotary Pumps Invention of Centrifugal Pump Municipal Water Pumping Plants and Mains Offshore Facilities2. Philosophy of Protection Process Emergency Control Measures Incident Fuel Consumption Provide Protective Measures Passive Systems Active Systems Insurance Requirements Internal Company Policies and Standards3. Firewater Flow Requirements Risk Areas Exposure Cooling Requirements Fire Control Requirements Suppression Requirements Egress Water Sprays Residual Pressure Requirements4. Duration of Firewater Supplies Capability of Public Water Mains Primary Supplies Reserve Supplies5. Sources of Firewater Pump Supply Seas and Oceans Rivers, Channels, Ponds and Lakes Water Wells (Natural Underground Reservoirs) Manmade Reservoirs (Impounded Supplies) Storage Tanks Municipal and Private Firewater Distribution Mains Specialized Offshore Raw Seawater Systems Firewater Usage by Other Services Emergency Water Sources Water Quality Enhancements to Fire Fighting Water Marine Growth Biocide Injection Other Marine Growth Control Methods Future Use, Sources and Development6. Pump Types and Applications Centrifugal Pumps Pump/Impeller Design Relationships Single and Multi-stage Arrangements Volute and Turbine Pump Classification Axial Flow Pumps Positive Displacement Pumps Rotary Pumps Gear Pumps Lobe Pumps Sliding Vane Pumps Reciprocating Pumps Firewater Pump Characteristics Characteristic Firewater Pump ""Curve"" Main and Standby Firewater Pumps Booster Firewater Pumps Water Mist Firewater Pumps Jockey Pumps Firewater Circulation Pumps Foam Pumps Packaged and Skid Units Retrofit Improvements to Existing Firewater Pumps Future Expansion Reliance on Mobile Firewater Pumping Apparatus Portable Pumps NFPA 20 Versus API 610 and Other Pump Types7. Pump Installation, Piping Arrangements and Accessories Code Requirements Listing Requirements Typical Installation Pump Separation Pump Room or Building Construction Offshore Facilities Arctic Locations Arid Locations Tropical Locations Earthquake Zones Multiple Pump Installations Pump Rotation Relief Valves Circulation Relief Valves Pressure and Flow Control Valves Isolation Valves Bypass Capability Pressure Gages Pressure Recorders Flow Measurement Capability Check Valves Air Release Valve Supervision of Isolation Valves Inlet Screens, Strainers and Filters Submerged Pump Intake Openings Cavitation, Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and Vortices Water Hammer or Surge Pumping System Hydraulic Design Vibration Limitation Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA) Backflow Prevention Area and Task Lighting Ventilation Sprinkler Protection Utility Services Drainage Outside Installations8. Materials of Construction Durability Corrosion Considerations Cathodic Protection Coatings Fiberglass Materials Fresh Water Concerns Common Pump Materials9. Pump Drivers and Power Transmission Electric Motors NEMA Classification Splash Shield or Partitions Gasoline Engines Diesel Engines Engine Gage Panel Diesel Engine Fuel Supplies Fuel Refilling Aspects Fuel Contamination Engine Starting Systems Starting Batteries Engine Cooling System Engine Exhaust System Air Supplies and Ventilation Instrument Panel Steam Turbine Power Transmission Options Driver Pump Coupling Right Angle Gear Drives Lineshafts Indirect Hydraulic Drive Acoustical Concerns Maintenance Access10. Firewater Pump Controllers Firewater Pump Controllers Diesel Engine Firewater Pump Controllers Electric Motor Firewater Pump Controllers Controller Power Supplies Dual Power Source Controllers Automatic Transfer Switches (ATS) Low Suction Pressure Cut-Off Jockey Pump Controllers Remote Alarm and Shutdown Panels for Fire Pump Controllers Foam Pump Controllers Controller Listing or Approval Multiple Firewater Pump Installations Automatic Activation Firemain Pressure Switch Activation Remote Activation Local Activation Startup Attempts Color Coding of Panel Indicators Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P & IDs) Controller Indicators First-Up Fault Feature Cause and Effects Charts Firewater Pump Shutdown Specialized Installations Controller Location and Access Requirements11. Reliability Failure Categories Insurance Industry Experience Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Single Point Failures (SPF) Number of Firewater Pumps Pump Failures Electrical Motor Failures Diesel Engine Failures Gearbox Failures Controllers Faults Plant Perils & Pumping System Exposure12. Classified Area Pump Installations Diesel Engine Ignition Hazards Primary Ignition Hazards Secondary Ignition Hazards Hot Surfaces Hot Exhaust Gases Exhaust System (Muffler) Exhaust System Spark or Flame Discharge Engine Overspeeding Flashback in Air Intake Material Selection Rated Instrumentation and Electrical Hardware Decompression Ports Electric Motors Controllers13. Firewater Pump Acceptance and Flow Testing Safety Precautions Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) Site Acceptance Test (SAT) and Commissioning Periodic Performance Tests - Frequencies and Duration Pump Curve Test Points Fuel Examination Specific Speed Verification Accuracy of Test Gages Weekly Testing Controller and Interface Testing Foam Pump Testing Basic Test Procedure14. Human Factors & Quality Control Human Factors Identification Painting Flow Arrows Starting Instructions Access Guards Noise Levels Emergency and Pre-Fire Plans Documentation Training Security Quality Control Appendices Acronyms Glossary Bibliography Index