Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques book cover

Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques

Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques is an indispensable collection of key optical measurement techniques essential for developing and characterizing today’s photonic devices and fiber optic systems. The book gives comprehensive and systematic descriptions of various fiber optic measurement methods with the emphasis on the understanding of optoelectronic signal processing methodologies, helping the reader to weigh up the pros and cons of each technique and establish their suitability for the task at hand. Carefully balancing descriptions of principle, operations and optoelectronic circuit implementation, this indispensable resource will enable the engineer to:• Understand the implications of various measurement results and system performance qualifications• Characterize modern optical systems and devices• Select optical devices and subsystems in optical network design and implementation• Design innovative instrumentations for fiber optic systemsThis book brings together in one volume the fundamental principles with the latest techniques, making it a complete resource for the optical and communications engineer developing future optical devices and fiber optic systems."Optical fiber communication systems and networks constitute the core of the telecom infrastructure of the information society worldwide. Accurate knowledge of the properties of the contituent components, and of the performance of the subsystems and systems must be obtained in order to ensure reliable transmission, distribution, and delivery of information. This book is an authoritative and comprehensive treatment of fiber-optic measurement techniques, including not only fundamental principles and methodologies but also various instrumentations and practical implementations. It is an excellent up-to-date resource and reference for the academic and industrial researcher as well as the field engineer in manufacturing and network operations." – Dr. Tingye Li, AT&T Labs (retired)Rongqing Hui received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy in 1993. He is currently a tenured professor in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Kansas. He has published more than 90 refereed technical papers in the area of fiber-optic communications and holds 13 patents. Dr. Hui currently serves as an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Communications.Maurice O'Sullivan has worked for Nortel for a score of years, at first in the optical cable business, developing factory-tailored metrology for optical fiber, but, in the main, in the optical transmission business developing, modeling and verifying physical layer designs & performance of Nortel's line and highest rate transmission product including OC-192, MOR, MOR+, LH1600G, eDCO and eDC40G. He holds a Ph.D. in physics (high resolution spectroscopy) from the University of Toronto, is a Nortel Fellow and has been granted more than 30 patents.

Audience
Optical and photonic engineers, R&D engineers, communications engineers, graduate students

Hardbound, 672 Pages

Published: December 2008

Imprint: Academic Press

ISBN: 978-0-12-373865-3

Reviews

  • "Optical fiber communication systems and networks constitute the core of the telecom infrastructure of the information society worldwide. Accurate knowledge of the properties of the contituent components, and of the performance of the subsystems and systems must be obtained in order to ensure reliable transmission, distribution, and delivery of information. This book is an authoritative and comprehensive treatment of fiber-optic measurement techniques, including not only fundamental principles and methodologies but also various instrumentations and practical implementations. It is an excellent up-to-date resource and reference for the academic and industrial researcher as well as the field engineer in manufacturing and network operations." – Dr. Tingye Li, AT&T Labs (retired)

Contents

  • Introduction Chapter 1: Fundamentals of optical devices1.1 Laser diodes and LEDs 1.1.1 pn junction and energy diagram 1.1.2 Direct and indirect semiconductors 1.1.3 Carrier confinement 1.1.4 Spontaneous emission and stimulated emission 1.1.5 Light Emitting Diodes (LED) 1.1.6 Laser Diodes (LD) 1.1.7 Single frequency semiconductor lasers1.2 Photodetectors 1.2.1 PN-junction photodiodes 1.2.2 Responsivity and bandwidth 1.2.3 Electrical Characteristics of a photodiode 1.2.4 Photo-detector noise and SNR 1.2.5 Avalanche photodiodes (APD)1.3 Optical fibers 1.3.1 Reflection and refraction 1.3.2 Propagation modes in optical fibers 1.3.3 Optical fiber attenuation 1.3.4 Group velocity and dispersion 1.3.5 Nonlinear effects in an optical fiber1.4 Optical amplifiers 1.4.1 Optical gain, gain bandwidth and saturation 1.4.2 Semiconductor optical amplifiers 1.4.3 Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA)1.5 External electro-optic modulator 1.5.1 Basic operation principle of electro-optic modulators 1.5.2 Frequency doubling and duo-binary modulation 1.5.3 Optical single-side modulation 1.5.4 Optical modulators using electro-absorption effectChapter 2: Basic instrumentation for optical measurement2.1 Grating-base optical spectrum analyzer 2.1.1 General specifications 2.1.2 Fundamentals of diffraction gratings 2.1.3 Basic OSA configurations2.2 Scanning FP interferometer 2.2.1 Basic FPI configuration and transfer function 2.2.2 Scanning FPI spectrum analyzer 2.2.3 Scanning FPI basic optical configurations 2.2.4 Optical spectrum analyzer using the combination of grating and FPI2.3 Mach-zehnder interferometer 2.3.1 Transfer matrix of a 2x2 optical coupler 2.3.2 Transfer function of an MZI 2.3.3 MZI used as an optical filter2.4 Michelson interferometer 2.4.1 Operation principle of a Michelson interferometer 2.4.2 Measurement and characterization of Michelson interferometers 2.4.3 Techniques to increase frequency selectivity2.5 Optical wavelength meter 2.5.1 Operation principle of a wavelength meter based on Michelson interferometer 2.5.2 Wavelength coverage and spectral resolution 2.5.3 wavelength calibration 2.5.4 Wavelength meter based on Fizeau wedge interferometer2.6 Optical Polarimeter 2.6.1 General description of lightwave polarization 2.6.2 The Stokes Parameters and the Poincare sphere 2.6.3 Optical Polarimeter implementations2.7 Measurement based on coherent optical detection 2.7.1 Basic principle of coherent detection 2.7.2 Receiver SNR calculation of coherent detection 2.7.3 Balanced coherent detection and polarization diversity 2.7.4 Phase diversity in coherent homodyne detection 2.7.5 Coherent OSA based on swept frequency laser2.8 Waveform Measurement 2.8.1 Oscilloscope operation principle 2.8.2 Digital sampling oscilloscope 2.8.3 High-speed sampling of optical signal 2.8.4 High-speed electric ADC using optical techniques 2.8.5 Short optical pulse measurement using an autocorrelator2.9 Optical Low-coherent interferometry 2.9.1 Optical low-coherence reflectometry 2.9.2 Fourier-domain reflectometry2.10 Optical network analyzer 2.10.1 S-parameters and RF network analyzer 2.10.2 Optical network analyzerChapter 3: Characterization of optical devices3.1 Characterization of RIN and linewidth of semiconductor lasers 3.1.1 Measurement of relative intensity noise (RIN) 3.1.2 Measurement of laser phase noise and linewidth3.2 Measurement of electro-optic modulation response 3.2.1 Characterization of intensity modulation response 3.2.2 Measurement of frequency chirp 3.2.3 Time-domain measurement of modulation-induced chirp3.3 Wide-band characterization of an optical receiver 3.3.1 Characterization of photodetector responsivity and linearity 3.3.2 Frequency domain characterization of photodetector response 3.3.3 Photodetector bandwidth characterization using source spontaneousspontaneousbeat noise 3.3.4 Photodetector characterization using short optical pulses3.4 Characterization of optical amplifiers 3.4.1 Measurement of amplifier optical gain 3.4.2 Measurement of static and dynamic gain tilt 3.4.3 Optical amplifier noise 3.4.4 Optical domain characterization of ASE noise 3.4.5 Impact of ASE noise in electrical domain 3.4.6 Noise Figure definition and its measurement 3.4.7 Time domain characteristics of EDFA3.5 Characterization of passive optical components 3.5.1 Fiber-optic couplers 3.5.2 Fiber Bragg-grating filters 3.5.3 WDM multiplexers and demultiplers 3.5.4 Optical isolators and circulatorsChapter 4: Optical fiber measurement4.1 Classification of fiber types4.2 Measurement of fiber mode-field distribution 4.2.1 Near-field, far-field and mode field diameter 4.2.2 The far-field measurement techniques 4.2.3 The near-field measurement techniques4.3 Fiber attenuation measurement and OTDR 4.3.1 Cutback technique 4.3.2 Optical time-domain reflectometer 4.3.3 Improvement considerations of OTDR4.4 Fiber dispersion measurements 4.4.1 Intermodal dispersion and its measurement (1) Pulse distortion method (2) Frequency domain measurement 4.4.2 Chromatic dispersion and its measurement (1) Modulation phase shift method (2) Baseband AM response method (3) Interferometric method4.5 Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Measurement 4.5.1 Representation fiber birefringence and PMD parameter 4.5.2 Pulse delay method 4.5.3 The Interferometric method 4.5.4 Poincare Arc method 4.5.5 Fixed Analyzer method 4.5.6 The Jones-Matrix method 4.5.7 The Mueller-Matrix method4.6 Determination of polarization-dependent loss4.7 PMD sources and emulators4.8 Measurement of fiber nonlinearity 4.7.1 Measurement of Stimulated Brilliouin Scattering Coefficient 4.7.2 Measurement of Stimulated Raman Scattering Coefficient 4.7.3 Measurement of Kerr-effect nonlinearityChapter 5: Optical System Performance Measurements5.1 Overview of fiber-optic transmission systems 5.1.1 Optical system performance considerations 5.1.2 Receiver BER and Q 5.1.3 System Q estimation based on eye diagram parameterization 5.1.4 Bit Error-rate Testing5.2 Receiver sensitivity measurement and OSNR tolerance 5.2.1 Receiver sensitivity and power margin 5.2.2 OSNR margin and required OSNR (R-OSNR) 5.2.3 BER vs. decision threshold measurement5.3 Waveform distortion measurements5.4 Time jitter measurement 5.4.1 Basic jitter parameters and definitions 5.4.2 Jitter detection techniques5.5 In-situ monitoring techniques of fiber-optic systems 5.5.1 In-situ monitoring of chromatic dispersion 5.5.2 In-situ PMD monitoring 5.5.3 In-situ PDL monitoring5.6 Measurement of nonlinear crosstalk in multi-span WDM systems 5.6.1 XPM-induced intensity modulation in IMDD optical systems 5.6.2 XPM-induced phase modulation 5.6.3 FWM-induced crosstalk in IMDD optical systems 5.6.4 Characterization of Raman crosstalk with wide channel separation5.7 Modulation instability and its impact in WDM optical systems 5.7.1 Modulation-instability and transfer matrix formulation 5.7.2 Impact of modulation-instability in amplified multi-span fiber systems 5.7.3 Characterization of modulation instability in fiber-optic systems5.8 System degradation measurements based on the required OSNR 5.8.1 Measurement of R-SNR due to chromatic dispersion 5.8.2 Measurement of R-SNR due to fiber nonlinearity 5.8.3 Measurement of R-SNR due to optical filter misalignment5.9 Optical re-circulating loop 5.9.1 Operation principle of a recirculating loop 5.9.2 Measurement procedure and time control 5.9.3 Optical gain adjustment in the loop

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