Fetal and Neonatal Physiology book cover

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology

Here's today's most encyclopedic, in-depth compendium of knowledge on the normal and abnormal physiology of the fetus and neonate. Over 270 international authorities detail the unique characteristics that distinguish fetal and neonatal physiology from the physiology of adults—and, where appropriate, address the pathophysiology and clinical management of selected neonatal diseases.

Audience
Pediatricians/Neonatologists, Pediatric/ Neonatal Residents

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Published: December 2003

Imprint: Saunders

ISBN: 978-0-7216-9654-6

Contents

  • I. Genetics: Genetics

    II. Embryology: Embryology • Regulation of Embryogenesis • Pathophysiology of Congenital Malformations

    III. The Placenta: Placental Development • Regulation of the Placental Circulation • Mechanisms of Transfer Across the Human Placenta • Endocrine and Paracrine Function of the Human Placenta • Placental Proteins • Placental Separation at Birth • Multiple Pregnancy

    IV. Developmental Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics: Basic Pharmacologic Principles • Basic Pharmacokinetic Principles • Physiochemical and Structural Properties Regulating Placental Drug Transfer • Genetic Regulation of Drug Metabolism • Drug Distribution During Fetal Life • Drug Protein Binding During Development • Development of Renal Excretion of Drugs During Ontogeny • Pharmacodynamics and Receptor Sensitivity During Development • Drug Abuse During Fetal and Neonatal Life • Sympathoadrenal Mechanisms During Development • Developmental Neuropharmacology • Physiologic Differences of Clinical Significance • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in the Newborn • Drug Excretion during Lactation

    V.Intrauterine Growth: Intrauterine Growth and Nutrition

    VI. Postnatal Growth and Nutrition: Infant Growth in the First Year of Life • Endocrine and Other Factors Affecting Growth • Water Requirements • Energy Requirements • Protein Requirements • Carbohydrate Requirements • Fat Metabolism and Requirements • Mineral and Trace Element Requirements • Vitamin Requirements • Human Milk Composition and Function in the Infant • Types and Methods of Feeding for Infants • Nutritional Assessment • Growth Outcome of Critically Ill Neonates

    VII. Perinatal Iron, Trace Minerals, and Vitamin Metabolism: Iron Metabolism during Fetal and Neonatal Life • Trace Element Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate • Metabolism of Vitamin A and Water Soluble Vitamins During Fetal and Neonatal Life • Vitamin E Metabolism in the Fetus and Neonate • Vitamin K Metabolism during the Fetal and Neonatal Periods

    VIII. Lipid Metabolism in the Fetus and Newborn: Placental Transport of Free Fatty Acids, Glycerol, and Ketone Bodies • Lipid Accretion in the Fetus and Newborn • Brown Adipose Tissue: Development and Function • Lipids and an Energy Source for the Premature and Full-Term Neonate • Ketone Body Production and Metabolism in the Fetus and Newborn • Very Long Chain Fatty Acids in the Developing Retina and Brain • Physiological Effects of Lipid Infusions • Developmental Physiology of Lipoproteins and Cholesterol • Lipoprotein Lipase

    IX. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Metabolism of Glucose and Methods of Investigation in the Fetus and Newborn • Maternal Metabolism During Pregnancy • Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Fetus • Role of Glucoregulatory Hormones on Hepatic Glucose Metabolism During the Perinatal Period • Cell Glucose Transport and Glucose Handling During Fetal and Neonatal Development • Glucose Metabolism During the Transition to Postnatal Life • Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia in the Newborn

    X. Protein Metabolism: General Concepts of Protein Metabolism • Fetal Requirements and Placental Transfer of Nitrogenous Compounds • Nitrogen Sources for the Newborn • Protein Metabolism in the Newborn • Protein and Amino Acid Requirements • Modification of Protein Metabolism Because of Disease

    XI. Thermoregulation: Perinatal Thermal Physiology • Neonatal Thermal Physiology • Physics and Physiology of Human Incubation • Temperature Measurement in the Preterm Newborn • Incubator Management

    XII. Skin: Structural and Biochemical Organogenesis of Skin and Cutaneous Appendages in the Fetus and Newborn • Development of the Cutaneous Circulation • Composition of Skin Lipids • Sweating in the Neonate • pH Patterns in Newborn Skin • Skin Barrier Function • Bacterial Colonization of the Skin of the Newborn

    XIII. Fetal and Neonatal Cardiovascular Physiology: Development of the Fetal Heart • Molecular Development of the Heart • Role of Peptide Growth Factors in Cardiovascular Development • Fetal and Neonatal Cardiovascular Physiologic Development • Developmental Electrophysiology in the Fetus and Neonate • Developmental Biology of the Pulmonary Vasculature • Development of the Pulmonary Circulation: Metabolic Aspects • Development of the Gastrointestinal Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn • Regulation of the Fetal Cerebral Circulation • Autonomic and Central Neuroregulation of Fetal Cardiovascular Function • Endocrine Regulation of the Fetal Circulation • Nitric Oxide and the Perinatal Circulation • Regulation of Umbilical Blood Flow • Fetal and Placental Circulation During Labor • Cardiovascular Diagnosis in the Fetus and the Effects of Congenital Heart Lesions on Developing Physiology • Response of the Fetal Circulation to Stress • Fetal and Neonatal Congestive Heart Failure • Physiology of Resuscitation

    XIV. The Lung: Normal and Abnormal Structural Development of the Lung • Fetal and Neonatal Lung-liquid Balance • Functional Development of the Upper Airway • Functional Development of the Lower Airway • Functional Development of Respiratory Muscles • Mechanics of Breathing • Pulmonary Gas Exchange in the Developing Lung • Oxygen Transport and Delivery • Control of Breathing in Fetal Life and Onset and Control of Breathing in the Neonate • Pathophysiology of Apnea of Prematurity • Evaluation of Pulmonary Function in the Neonate • Pathophysiology of Hyaline Membrane Disease (Excluding Surfactant) • Pathophysiology of Lung Injury and Repair: Special Features of the Immature Lung • Pathophysiology of Chronic Lung Disease • Physiologic Effects of Conventional Mechanical Ventilation • Physiology of High Frequency Ventilation • Liquid Ventilation • Physiology of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    XV. Pulmonary Surfactant: Historical Perspective • Composition of Pulmonary Surfactant Lipids and Proteins • Biophysical Activities of Pulmonary Surfactant • Lung Morphogenesis: Formation and Function of the Alveolar Surface Layer • Regulation of Surfactant-associated Phospholipid Synthesis and Secretion • Pathophysiology of Respiratory Distress Syndrome • Hormonal Therapy for Prevention of Respiratory Distress Syndrome • Surfactant Replacement Therapy

    XVI. Physiology Of The Gastrointestinal Tract in the Fetus and Neonate: Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Human Gastrointestinal Development • Organogenesis, Innervation, and Histologic Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract • Development of the Enteric Nervous System • Development of Gastric Secretory Function • Development of Intestinal and Colonic Motility • Motility of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract in the Fetus and Neonate • Development of Exocrine Pancreatic Function • Digestive and Absorptive Function in the Fetus and Infant • Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux • Pathophysiology and Epidemiology of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    XVII. Liver and Bilirubin Metabolism: Organogenesis and Histologic Development of the Liver • Fetal and Postnatal Hepatic Vasculature and Blood Flow • Bile Acid Metabolism during Development • Bile Secretion and its Control in the Mature and Immature Organism • Hepatic Disposition of Xenobiotics during Prenatal and Early Postnatal Development • Bilirubin Metabolism and Toxicity in the Newborn • Pathophysiology of Breast-Milk Jaundice • Phototherapy for Neonatal Jaundice • Pathophysiology of Metabolic Diseases of the Liver • Pathogenesis of Neonatal Cholestasis • Evaluation of Liver Function

    XVIII. The Kidney: Embryogenesis and Anatomic Development of the Kidney • Renal Function in Utero • Postnatal Maturation of Renal Blood Flow • Development of the Renin-Angiotensin System • Postnatal Development of Glomerular Filtration • Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Neonates • Renal Transport of Sodium During Early Development • Potassium Transport in Early Development • Transport of Calcium and Phosphorus • Transport of Amino Acids During Early Development • Developmental Aspects of Organic Acid Transport • Concentration of the Urine • Dilution of the Urine • Urinary Acidification • The Response to Nephron Loss in Early Development • Regulation of Blood Pressure During Fetal and Newborn Life • Clinical Significance of Developmental Renal Physiology • Pathophysiology of Acute Renal Failure in the Neonatal Period • Continuous Hemofiltration in Neonates

    XIX. Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism: Fluid Distribution in the Fetus and Neonate • Fetal and neonatal Body Fluid Composition with Reference to Growth and Development • Colloid Pressure and Osmoregulation in the Pregnant Woman, Fetus, and Neonate • Regulation of Acid-Base Balance in the Fetus and Neonate • Hydrops Fetalis and Other Causes of Neonatal Edema and Ascites

    XX. Hematopoiesis and Granulopoiesis: Developmental Biology of the Hematopoietic Growth Factors • Developmental Granulopoiesis • Developmental Erythropoiesis • Developmental Megakaryocytopoiesis

    XXI. Hemostasis: Normal Hemostasis in the Newborn: Plasmatic Factors • Normal Hemostasis in the Newborn: Cellular Factors, Platelets, and the Vessel Wall • Pathophysiology of Bleeding Disorders in the Newborn • Pathophysiology of Neonatal Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Thrombosis

    XXII. Developmental Immunobiology: Host Defense Mechanisms Against Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, and Nonviral Intracellular Pathogens • T-Cell Development • B-Cell Development • Mononuclear Phagocyte System • Neutrophil Function in Newborn Infants • The Complement System in the Fetus and Newborn • Cytokines and the Inflammatory Response • Integrins and Cell Adhesion Molecules • Stimulus-Response Coupling • Fetal and Neonatal Wound Healing • Immunology of the Breast and Host Immunity • Amniotic Fluid Host Defense Mechanisms • Host Defense Mechanisms in the Lung

    XXIII. Neurology: Development of the Nervous System • Development of the Blood-Brain Barrier • Development of Neurotransmitters • Biochemistry of Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury • Perinatal Brain Metabolism and Prevention of Asphyxial Injury • Developmental Biochemistry: Studies in vivo with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy • Electroencephalography in the Premature and Full-term Infant • Development of Tone and Reflexes in the Fetus and Newborn • Cerebral Blood Flow in Premature Infants: regulation, Measurement, and Pathophysiology of Intraventricular Hemorrhage • Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Premature Infant: Morphologic Characteristics • Deleterious Effects of Intrauterine Drug Exposure of the Nervous System • Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Brain Development • Ontogenesis of Striated Muscle

    XXIV. Special Sensory Systems in the Fetus and Neonate: Development of Touch, Pain, and Temperature Sensation in the Fetus and Neonate • Anatomical and Functional Development of the Eye and Pathophysiology of Retinopathy of Prematurity • Anatomical and Functional Development of Hearing • Development of Taste and Smell in the Neonate

    XXV. Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Metabolism: Calcium-Regulating Hormones • Calcium, phosphorus, and Magnesium Transport Across the Placenta • Neonatal Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Homeostasis • Pathophysiology of Neonatal Hypocalcemia • Osteopenia of Rickets of Prematurity

    XVI. Orthopedics: Growth Plate: Structure and Physiology • Intrauterine Compression Syndromes: Effects of Mechanics on Endochondral Ossification • Defective Limb Embryology • Congenital Vertebral Anomalies and their Sequelae • The Congenital Muscle Diseases • Skeletal Dysplasia and Dwarfism: Physiology and Pathophysiology • Pathophysiology of Neonatal Osteomyelitis and Septic Arthritis • Standards and Measurements: Fetus and Neonate

    XVII. The Pituitary: Neurosecretions and Neurotransmitters of the Fetal Hypothalamus • Growth Factors and Development • Growth Hormone and Prolactin • LH and FSH Secretion in the Fetus and Newborn • Development of the Corticotropin-releasing Factor ACTH/Beta Endorphin System in the Mammalian Fetus • Fetal and Neonatal Neuropophyseal Hormones

    XXVIII. The Fetal and Neonatal Adrenal and Fetal Thyroid Systems: Fetal and Neonatal Adrenocortical Physiology • Fetal and Neonatal Thyroid Physiology

    XXIX. The Ovary and Testis: Sex Determination • Germ Cells and the Indifferent Gonad • Differentiation of the Ovary • Testicular Development • Testicular Descent

    Index

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