With the objective of limiting the individual family size to just one or two children, most women spend the larger part of their reproductive years attempting to avoid an unwanted or unplanned pregnancy. Effective fertility control is important in a womanâs life to give her the choices of planning her family and to empower her to accomplish her goals in life besides, those of mere childbearing and childrearing. As with many other preventative medical interventions, the efficacy of contraceptive measures cannot be directly assessed; only failures can be quantified. The Pearl index is a statistical tool in this context, for measuring the effectiveness of the fertility control method and estimation of the number of unintended pregnancies per 100 woman-years of exposure. It is also used to compare the birth control methods with a lower Pearl index denoting a lower chance of getting unintentionally pregnant. Fertility Control has come up with comparative study of different controlling techniques, along with the clinical experiences of its eminent authors.