Ergonomic Solutions for the Process IndustriesBy
- Dennis Attwood, Risk Reliability and Safety Engineering LLC, Texas, USA
- Joseph Deeb, Ph.D., CPE, M.Erg.S., ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
- Mary Danz-Reece, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc. , New Jersey, USA
Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Hardbound, 480 Pages
Published: December 2003
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
- PrefaceAcknowledgementsAuthor Disclaimer1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction1.2 Chapter review1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter1.5 References2. PERSONAL FACTORS2.1 Introduction2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense 22.214.171.124 Accommodation of the Eye 126.96.36.199 Visual Field 188.8.131.52 Process of Adaptation 184.108.40.206 Color Vision 220.127.116.11 Visual Acuity 18.104.22.168 Age 2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities 22.214.171.124 Attention 126.96.36.199 Perception 188.8.131.52 Memory 184.108.40.206 Decision Making 2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance 220.127.116.11 Factors Affecting Strength 18.104.22.168 Endurance and Fatigue 2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size 22.214.171.124 Sources of Body Size Variability 126.96.36.199 Principles of Body Size Application2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method 188.8.131.52 Participants 184.108.40.206 Equipment 220.127.116.11 Procedure 2.4.2 Data Collected 18.104.22.168 Data Analyses 2.4.3 Conclusion 22.214.171.124 Recommendations for Existing Operations2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter2.6 References3. PHYSICAL FACTORS3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders3.2 Manual Handling Tasks3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks126.96.36.199 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks188.8.131.52 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks184.108.40.206 Biomechanical Models3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks3.3.1 Risk Factors3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools3.3.3 Hand Tools3.4 Behavior3.5 Ergonomics Program3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process3.5.2 Solutions3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program3.6 Case Study3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter3.8 References4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS4.1 Introduction4.2 Illumination 4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 220.127.116.11 Lighting Quantity 18.104.22.168 Task Factors 22.214.171.124 Age Factor 126.96.36.199 Lighting Quality 188.8.131.52.1 Lighting Color 184.108.40.206.2 Glare 220.127.116.11.3 Luminance Ratio4.3 Temperature 4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 18.104.22.168 Cognitive Tasks 22.214.171.124 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 126.96.36.199 Cognitive Tasks 188.8.131.52 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 184.108.40.206 Hot Environment 220.127.116.11 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 18.104.22.168 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 22.214.171.124 Guidelines for Cold Conditions4.4 Noise 4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 126.96.36.199 Speech and Communication 188.8.131.52 Cognitive Performance 184.108.40.206 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 220.127.116.11 Aging Hearing Loss 18.104.22.168 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 22.214.171.124 Noise Control at Source 126.96.36.199 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 188.8.131.52 Noise Control at The receiver4.5 Vibration 4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 184.108.40.206 Motor Control 220.127.116.11 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter4.8 References 5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN5.1 Human System Interface5.2 Controls5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls5.2.2 Types of Controls5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification5.2.4 Stereotypes5.2.5 Access to Operate5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation5.2.7 Valves5.3 Visual Displays5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays5.3.2 Mounting Displays5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays5.5 Auditory Displays5.6 Field Control Panels5.6.1 Field Panel Layout5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels5.7 Process Control Displays5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface18.104.22.168 Display Hierarchy22.214.171.124 Contents of Displays126.96.36.199 Display Layout188.8.131.52 Abbreviations and Labels184.108.40.206 Alarms220.127.116.11 Text Messages18.104.22.168 Lines and Arrows22.214.171.124 Numeric Values126.96.36.199 Use of Color188.8.131.52 Display Access184.108.40.206 Symbols5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays220.127.116.11 Initial Survey18.104.22.168 Scope the Improvements22.214.171.124 Prepare the Interface Design Team126.96.36.199 Brief the Board Operators188.8.131.52 Execute the Interface Design Effort184.108.40.206 Obtain Operator Feedback220.127.116.11 Transfer to the New System18.104.22.168 Summary5.8 Case Study5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter5.10 ReferencesAPPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design6. WORKPLACE DESIGN6.1 Introduction6.2 Workplace Design Principles6.2.1 Introduction6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population22.214.171.124: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace126.96.36.199: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population188.8.131.52: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible184.108.40.206: Aisleways and corridors220.127.116.11: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment18.104.22.168: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms22.214.171.124.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps126.96.36.199.2 Walkways and platforms188.8.131.52 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition6.2.6 Positioning work184.108.40.206: Position work within the range of motion of the body220.127.116.11: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach18.104.22.168: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures22.214.171.124: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture126.96.36.199: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder188.8.131.52: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted184.108.40.206: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities220.127.116.11: Minimize manual handling18.104.22.168: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards22.214.171.124: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace126.96.36.199.1 Seated workstations188.8.131.52.2 Standing workstations184.108.40.206.3 Sit/Stand workstations220.127.116.11 Selecting the optimal workstation design18.104.22.168: Workstation design standards22.214.171.124.1 Seated Workstations126.96.36.199.2 Standing Workstations188.8.131.52.3 Sit/Stand Workstations184.108.40.206 Seating6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability220.127.116.11 Design considerations18.104.22.168 Maintenance considerations6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis6.3.2 Task Analysis6.3.3 LINK Analysis6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter6.7 References7. JOB FACTORS7.1 Introduction7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders 22.214.171.124 Normal Sleep 126.96.36.199 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 188.8.131.52 Fatigue 7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life 184.108.40.206 Shift Schedule Worked 220.127.116.11 Individual Differences 18.104.22.168 Personal and Social Life 7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design 22.214.171.124 Length of Shift 126.96.36.199 Rotation of Shift 188.8.131.52.1 Direction of Rotation 184.108.40.206.2 Speed of Rotation 220.127.116.11.3 Number of Consecutive Days off 7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork 18.104.22.168 Sleep 22.214.171.124 Diet 126.96.36.199 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 188.8.131.52 Personal and Mental Hygiene 184.108.40.206 Strategies for Night Work 220.127.116.11 Organizational Strategies 18.104.22.168.1 Education 22.214.171.124.2 Facilities Design 126.96.36.199.3 Career Opportunities 188.8.131.52.4 Planned Maintenance Napping 7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis 184.108.40.206 Purpose of Task Analysis 220.127.116.11 When to Use Task Analysis 18.104.22.168 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 22.214.171.124 Process of the Task Analysis 7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology 126.96.36.199 Critical Task Identification Process 188.8.131.52 Critical Task Analysis 184.108.40.206 Follow-up Documentation7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned 220.127.116.11 Implementation 18.104.22.168 During Training 22.214.171.124 Observations 126.96.36.199 Measure 188.8.131.52 Positive Outcomes 7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program 184.108.40.206 Recommended Program Elements 220.127.116.11 Practical Considerations for Implementation7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter7.9 References8 INFORMATION PROCESSING8.1 Human Error 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Why humans make errors 8.1.3 Mental errors 8.1.4 Display errors 8.1.5 Environmental causes 8.1.6 System factors that lead to error8.2 Plant signs and labels 8.2.1 Equipment labeling program 8.2.2 Designing signs and labels 18.104.22.168 Content of the message 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 Message layout 188.8.131.52 Appearance of Characters 184.108.40.206 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 220.127.116.11 Pipe labeling 18.104.22.168 Electrical wire and cables labeling 22.214.171.124 Equipment labels 126.96.36.199 Equipment signs 188.8.131.52 Sampling points 184.108.40.206 Information signs8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter8.8 ReferencesATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist9. THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION9.1 Introduction9.2 Project management9.2.1 Management of major projects9.2.2 Management of Base Projects9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP)9.3.6 Procedures9.3.7 Analysis Techniques9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel9.3.11 Post Project Review9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter9.5 References