Ergonomic Solutions for the Process IndustriesBy
- Dennis Attwood
- Joseph Deeb, Ph.D., CPE, M.Erg.S.
- Mary Danz-Reece
Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Hardbound, 480 Pages
Published: December 2003
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
- PrefaceAcknowledgementsAuthor Disclaimer1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction1.2 Chapter review1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter1.5 References2. PERSONAL FACTORS2.1 Introduction2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense 188.8.131.52 Accommodation of the Eye 184.108.40.206 Visual Field 220.127.116.11 Process of Adaptation 18.104.22.168 Color Vision 22.214.171.124 Visual Acuity 126.96.36.199 Age 2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities 188.8.131.52 Attention 184.108.40.206 Perception 220.127.116.11 Memory 18.104.22.168 Decision Making 2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance 22.214.171.124 Factors Affecting Strength 126.96.36.199 Endurance and Fatigue 2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size 188.8.131.52 Sources of Body Size Variability 184.108.40.206 Principles of Body Size Application2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method 220.127.116.11 Participants 18.104.22.168 Equipment 22.214.171.124 Procedure 2.4.2 Data Collected 126.96.36.199 Data Analyses 2.4.3 Conclusion 188.8.131.52 Recommendations for Existing Operations2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter2.6 References3. PHYSICAL FACTORS3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders3.2 Manual Handling Tasks3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks184.108.40.206 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks220.127.116.11 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks18.104.22.168 Biomechanical Models3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks3.3.1 Risk Factors3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools3.3.3 Hand Tools3.4 Behavior3.5 Ergonomics Program3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process3.5.2 Solutions3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program3.6 Case Study3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter3.8 References4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS4.1 Introduction4.2 Illumination 4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 22.214.171.124 Lighting Quantity 126.96.36.199 Task Factors 188.8.131.52 Age Factor 184.108.40.206 Lighting Quality 220.127.116.11.1 Lighting Color 18.104.22.168.2 Glare 22.214.171.124.3 Luminance Ratio4.3 Temperature 4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 126.96.36.199 Cognitive Tasks 188.8.131.52 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 184.108.40.206 Cognitive Tasks 220.127.116.11 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 18.104.22.168 Hot Environment 22.214.171.124 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 126.96.36.199 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 188.8.131.52 Guidelines for Cold Conditions4.4 Noise 4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 184.108.40.206 Speech and Communication 220.127.116.11 Cognitive Performance 18.104.22.168 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 22.214.171.124 Aging Hearing Loss 126.96.36.199 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 188.8.131.52 Noise Control at Source 184.108.40.206 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 220.127.116.11 Noise Control at The receiver4.5 Vibration 4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 18.104.22.168 Motor Control 22.214.171.124 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter4.8 References 5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN5.1 Human System Interface5.2 Controls5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls5.2.2 Types of Controls5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification5.2.4 Stereotypes5.2.5 Access to Operate5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation5.2.7 Valves5.3 Visual Displays5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays5.3.2 Mounting Displays5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays5.5 Auditory Displays5.6 Field Control Panels5.6.1 Field Panel Layout5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels5.7 Process Control Displays5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface126.96.36.199 Display Hierarchy188.8.131.52 Contents of Displays184.108.40.206 Display Layout220.127.116.11 Abbreviations and Labels18.104.22.168 Alarms22.214.171.124 Text Messages126.96.36.199 Lines and Arrows188.8.131.52 Numeric Values184.108.40.206 Use of Color220.127.116.11 Display Access18.104.22.168 Symbols5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays22.214.171.124 Initial Survey126.96.36.199 Scope the Improvements188.8.131.52 Prepare the Interface Design Team184.108.40.206 Brief the Board Operators220.127.116.11 Execute the Interface Design Effort18.104.22.168 Obtain Operator Feedback22.214.171.124 Transfer to the New System126.96.36.199 Summary5.8 Case Study5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter5.10 ReferencesAPPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design6. WORKPLACE DESIGN6.1 Introduction6.2 Workplace Design Principles6.2.1 Introduction6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population188.8.131.52: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace184.108.40.206: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population220.127.116.11: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible18.104.22.168: Aisleways and corridors22.214.171.124: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment126.96.36.199: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms188.8.131.52.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps184.108.40.206.2 Walkways and platforms220.127.116.11 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition6.2.6 Positioning work18.104.22.168: Position work within the range of motion of the body22.214.171.124: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach126.96.36.199: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures188.8.131.52: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture184.108.40.206: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder220.127.116.11: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted18.104.22.168: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities22.214.171.124: Minimize manual handling126.96.36.199: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards188.8.131.52: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace184.108.40.206.1 Seated workstations220.127.116.11.2 Standing workstations18.104.22.168.3 Sit/Stand workstations22.214.171.124 Selecting the optimal workstation design126.96.36.199: Workstation design standards188.8.131.52.1 Seated Workstations184.108.40.206.2 Standing Workstations220.127.116.11.3 Sit/Stand Workstations18.104.22.168 Seating6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability22.214.171.124 Design considerations126.96.36.199 Maintenance considerations6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis6.3.2 Task Analysis6.3.3 LINK Analysis6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter6.7 References7. JOB FACTORS7.1 Introduction7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders 188.8.131.52 Normal Sleep 184.108.40.206 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 220.127.116.11 Fatigue 7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life 18.104.22.168 Shift Schedule Worked 22.214.171.124 Individual Differences 126.96.36.199 Personal and Social Life 7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design 188.8.131.52 Length of Shift 184.108.40.206 Rotation of Shift 220.127.116.11.1 Direction of Rotation 18.104.22.168.2 Speed of Rotation 22.214.171.124.3 Number of Consecutive Days off 7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork 126.96.36.199 Sleep 188.8.131.52 Diet 184.108.40.206 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 220.127.116.11 Personal and Mental Hygiene 18.104.22.168 Strategies for Night Work 22.214.171.124 Organizational Strategies 126.96.36.199.1 Education 188.8.131.52.2 Facilities Design 184.108.40.206.3 Career Opportunities 220.127.116.11.4 Planned Maintenance Napping 7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis 18.104.22.168 Purpose of Task Analysis 22.214.171.124 When to Use Task Analysis 126.96.36.199 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 188.8.131.52 Process of the Task Analysis 7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology 184.108.40.206 Critical Task Identification Process 220.127.116.11 Critical Task Analysis 18.104.22.168 Follow-up Documentation7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned 22.214.171.124 Implementation 126.96.36.199 During Training 188.8.131.52 Observations 184.108.40.206 Measure 220.127.116.11 Positive Outcomes 7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program 18.104.22.168 Recommended Program Elements 22.214.171.124 Practical Considerations for Implementation7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter7.9 References8 INFORMATION PROCESSING8.1 Human Error 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Why humans make errors 8.1.3 Mental errors 8.1.4 Display errors 8.1.5 Environmental causes 8.1.6 System factors that lead to error8.2 Plant signs and labels 8.2.1 Equipment labeling program 8.2.2 Designing signs and labels 126.96.36.199 Content of the message 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 Message layout 220.127.116.11 Appearance of Characters 18.104.22.168 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 22.214.171.124 Pipe labeling 126.96.36.199 Electrical wire and cables labeling 188.8.131.52 Equipment labels 184.108.40.206 Equipment signs 220.127.116.11 Sampling points 18.104.22.168 Information signs8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter8.8 ReferencesATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist9. THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION9.1 Introduction9.2 Project management9.2.1 Management of major projects9.2.2 Management of Base Projects9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP)9.3.6 Procedures9.3.7 Analysis Techniques9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel9.3.11 Post Project Review9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter9.5 References