Ergonomic Solutions for the Process IndustriesBy
- Dennis Attwood
- Joseph Deeb, Ph.D., CPE, M.Erg.S.
- Mary Danz-Reece
Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Hardbound, 480 Pages
Published: December 2003
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
- PrefaceAcknowledgementsAuthor Disclaimer1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction1.2 Chapter review1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter1.5 References2. PERSONAL FACTORS2.1 Introduction2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense 220.127.116.11 Accommodation of the Eye 18.104.22.168 Visual Field 22.214.171.124 Process of Adaptation 126.96.36.199 Color Vision 188.8.131.52 Visual Acuity 184.108.40.206 Age 2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities 220.127.116.11 Attention 18.104.22.168 Perception 22.214.171.124 Memory 126.96.36.199 Decision Making 2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance 188.8.131.52 Factors Affecting Strength 184.108.40.206 Endurance and Fatigue 2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size 220.127.116.11 Sources of Body Size Variability 18.104.22.168 Principles of Body Size Application2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method 22.214.171.124 Participants 126.96.36.199 Equipment 188.8.131.52 Procedure 2.4.2 Data Collected 184.108.40.206 Data Analyses 2.4.3 Conclusion 220.127.116.11 Recommendations for Existing Operations2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter2.6 References3. PHYSICAL FACTORS3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders3.2 Manual Handling Tasks3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks18.104.22.168 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks22.214.171.124 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks126.96.36.199 Biomechanical Models3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks3.3.1 Risk Factors3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools3.3.3 Hand Tools3.4 Behavior3.5 Ergonomics Program3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process3.5.2 Solutions3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program3.6 Case Study3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter3.8 References4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS4.1 Introduction4.2 Illumination 4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 188.8.131.52 Lighting Quantity 184.108.40.206 Task Factors 220.127.116.11 Age Factor 18.104.22.168 Lighting Quality 22.214.171.124.1 Lighting Color 126.96.36.199.2 Glare 188.8.131.52.3 Luminance Ratio4.3 Temperature 4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 184.108.40.206 Cognitive Tasks 220.127.116.11 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 18.104.22.168 Cognitive Tasks 22.214.171.124 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 126.96.36.199 Hot Environment 188.8.131.52 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 184.108.40.206 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 220.127.116.11 Guidelines for Cold Conditions4.4 Noise 4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 18.104.22.168 Speech and Communication 22.214.171.124 Cognitive Performance 126.96.36.199 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 188.8.131.52 Aging Hearing Loss 184.108.40.206 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 220.127.116.11 Noise Control at Source 18.104.22.168 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 22.214.171.124 Noise Control at The receiver4.5 Vibration 4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 126.96.36.199 Motor Control 188.8.131.52 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter4.8 References 5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN5.1 Human System Interface5.2 Controls5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls5.2.2 Types of Controls5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification5.2.4 Stereotypes5.2.5 Access to Operate5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation5.2.7 Valves5.3 Visual Displays5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays5.3.2 Mounting Displays5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays5.5 Auditory Displays5.6 Field Control Panels5.6.1 Field Panel Layout5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels5.7 Process Control Displays5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface184.108.40.206 Display Hierarchy220.127.116.11 Contents of Displays18.104.22.168 Display Layout22.214.171.124 Abbreviations and Labels126.96.36.199 Alarms188.8.131.52 Text Messages184.108.40.206 Lines and Arrows220.127.116.11 Numeric Values18.104.22.168 Use of Color22.214.171.124 Display Access126.96.36.199 Symbols5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays188.8.131.52 Initial Survey184.108.40.206 Scope the Improvements220.127.116.11 Prepare the Interface Design Team18.104.22.168 Brief the Board Operators22.214.171.124 Execute the Interface Design Effort126.96.36.199 Obtain Operator Feedback188.8.131.52 Transfer to the New System184.108.40.206 Summary5.8 Case Study5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter5.10 ReferencesAPPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design6. WORKPLACE DESIGN6.1 Introduction6.2 Workplace Design Principles6.2.1 Introduction6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population220.127.116.11: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace18.104.22.168: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population22.214.171.124: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible126.96.36.199: Aisleways and corridors188.8.131.52: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment184.108.40.206: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms220.127.116.11.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps18.104.22.168.2 Walkways and platforms22.214.171.124 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition6.2.6 Positioning work126.96.36.199: Position work within the range of motion of the body188.8.131.52: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach184.108.40.206: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures220.127.116.11: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture18.104.22.168: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder22.214.171.124: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted126.96.36.199: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities188.8.131.52: Minimize manual handling184.108.40.206: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards220.127.116.11: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace18.104.22.168.1 Seated workstations22.214.171.124.2 Standing workstations126.96.36.199.3 Sit/Stand workstations188.8.131.52 Selecting the optimal workstation design184.108.40.206: Workstation design standards220.127.116.11.1 Seated Workstations18.104.22.168.2 Standing Workstations22.214.171.124.3 Sit/Stand Workstations126.96.36.199 Seating6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability188.8.131.52 Design considerations184.108.40.206 Maintenance considerations6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis6.3.2 Task Analysis6.3.3 LINK Analysis6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter6.7 References7. JOB FACTORS7.1 Introduction7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders 220.127.116.11 Normal Sleep 18.104.22.168 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 22.214.171.124 Fatigue 7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life 126.96.36.199 Shift Schedule Worked 188.8.131.52 Individual Differences 184.108.40.206 Personal and Social Life 7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design 220.127.116.11 Length of Shift 18.104.22.168 Rotation of Shift 22.214.171.124.1 Direction of Rotation 126.96.36.199.2 Speed of Rotation 188.8.131.52.3 Number of Consecutive Days off 7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork 184.108.40.206 Sleep 220.127.116.11 Diet 18.104.22.168 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 22.214.171.124 Personal and Mental Hygiene 126.96.36.199 Strategies for Night Work 188.8.131.52 Organizational Strategies 184.108.40.206.1 Education 220.127.116.11.2 Facilities Design 18.104.22.168.3 Career Opportunities 22.214.171.124.4 Planned Maintenance Napping 7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis 126.96.36.199 Purpose of Task Analysis 188.8.131.52 When to Use Task Analysis 184.108.40.206 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 220.127.116.11 Process of the Task Analysis 7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology 18.104.22.168 Critical Task Identification Process 22.214.171.124 Critical Task Analysis 126.96.36.199 Follow-up Documentation7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned 188.8.131.52 Implementation 184.108.40.206 During Training 220.127.116.11 Observations 18.104.22.168 Measure 22.214.171.124 Positive Outcomes 7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program 126.96.36.199 Recommended Program Elements 188.8.131.52 Practical Considerations for Implementation7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter7.9 References8 INFORMATION PROCESSING8.1 Human Error 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Why humans make errors 8.1.3 Mental errors 8.1.4 Display errors 8.1.5 Environmental causes 8.1.6 System factors that lead to error8.2 Plant signs and labels 8.2.1 Equipment labeling program 8.2.2 Designing signs and labels 184.108.40.206 Content of the message 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 Message layout 22.214.171.124 Appearance of Characters 126.96.36.199 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 188.8.131.52 Pipe labeling 184.108.40.206 Electrical wire and cables labeling 220.127.116.11 Equipment labels 18.104.22.168 Equipment signs 22.214.171.124 Sampling points 126.96.36.199 Information signs8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter8.8 ReferencesATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist9. THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION9.1 Introduction9.2 Project management9.2.1 Management of major projects9.2.2 Management of Base Projects9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP)9.3.6 Procedures9.3.7 Analysis Techniques9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel9.3.11 Post Project Review9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter9.5 References