Ergonomic Solutions for the Process IndustriesBy
- Dennis Attwood
- Joseph Deeb, Ph.D., CPE, M.Erg.S.
- Mary Danz-Reece
Work-related injuries, such as back injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, are the most prevalent, most EXPENSIVE, and most preventable workplace injuries, accounting for more than 647,000 lost days of work annually (according to OSHA estimates). Such injuries, and many others, can be prevented in your facility by establishing an ergonomic design. This book shows you how to apply simple Ergonomic tools and procedures in your plant.Challenging worldwide regulations are forcing some companies to spend thousands of dollars per affected employee in order to comply. This book shows you how to comply with these regulations at a fraction of the cost, in the most timely, efficient method possible.
The Process Industries, such as petrochemical, paper, and pharmaceutical: Safety engineers and project personnel within the process organization (usually at larger companies), safety consultants (smaller companies), and students in engineering courses.
Hardbound, 480 Pages
Published: December 2003
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
- PrefaceAcknowledgementsAuthor Disclaimer1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction1.2 Chapter review1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical Factors1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design1.2.5 Chapter 6: Workplace Design1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information Processing1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors1.4 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter1.5 References2. PERSONAL FACTORS2.1 Introduction2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense 18.104.22.168 Accommodation of the Eye 22.214.171.124 Visual Field 126.96.36.199 Process of Adaptation 188.8.131.52 Color Vision 184.108.40.206 Visual Acuity 220.127.116.11 Age 2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities 18.104.22.168 Attention 22.214.171.124 Perception 126.96.36.199 Memory 188.8.131.52 Decision Making 2.2.4 Summary of Information Processing2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance 184.108.40.206 Factors Affecting Strength 220.127.116.11 Endurance and Fatigue 2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size 18.104.22.168 Sources of Body Size Variability 22.214.171.124 Principles of Body Size Application2.4 Case Study 2.4.1 Method 126.96.36.199 Participants 188.8.131.52 Equipment 184.108.40.206 Procedure 2.4.2 Data Collected 220.127.116.11 Data Analyses 2.4.3 Conclusion 18.104.22.168 Recommendations for Existing Operations2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter2.6 References3. PHYSICAL FACTORS3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders3.2 Manual Handling Tasks3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks22.214.171.124 Postural Observation Checklists for Manual Handling Tasks126.96.36.199 Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks188.8.131.52 Biomechanical Models3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks3.3.1 Risk Factors3.3.2 Survey/Observation Tools3.3.3 Hand Tools3.4 Behavior3.5 Ergonomics Program3.5.1 Risk Assessment Process3.5.2 Solutions3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program3.6 Case Study3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter3.8 References4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS4.1 Introduction4.2 Illumination 4.2.1 Lighting and Performance 184.108.40.206 Lighting Quantity 220.127.116.11 Task Factors 18.104.22.168 Age Factor 22.214.171.124 Lighting Quality 126.96.36.199.1 Lighting Color 188.8.131.52.2 Glare 184.108.40.206.3 Luminance Ratio4.3 Temperature 4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance 220.127.116.11 Cognitive Tasks 18.104.22.168 Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance 22.214.171.124 Cognitive Tasks 126.96.36.199 Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health 188.8.131.52 Hot Environment 184.108.40.206 Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions 220.127.116.11 Guidelines for Heat Conditions 18.104.22.168 Guidelines for Cold Conditions4.4 Noise 4.4.1 Effects of Noise on Performance 22.214.171.124 Speech and Communication 126.96.36.199 Cognitive Performance 188.8.131.52 Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health 184.108.40.206 Aging Hearing Loss 220.127.116.11 Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise 18.104.22.168 Noise Control at Source 22.214.171.124 Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission 126.96.36.199 Noise Control at The receiver4.5 Vibration 4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance 188.8.131.52 Motor Control 184.108.40.206 Visual Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in This Chapter4.8 References 5: EQUIPMENT DESIGN5.1 Human System Interface5.2 Controls5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls5.2.2 Types of Controls5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification5.2.4 Stereotypes5.2.5 Access to Operate5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation5.2.7 Valves5.3 Visual Displays5.3.1 Types of Visual Displays5.3.2 Mounting Displays5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual Displays5.5 Auditory Displays5.6 Field Control Panels5.6.1 Field Panel Layout5.6.2 Field Panel Labeling5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels5.7 Process Control Displays5.7.1 Process Control Display Interface220.127.116.11 Display Hierarchy18.104.22.168 Contents of Displays22.214.171.124 Display Layout126.96.36.199 Abbreviations and Labels188.8.131.52 Alarms184.108.40.206 Text Messages220.127.116.11 Lines and Arrows18.104.22.168 Numeric Values22.214.171.124 Use of Color126.96.36.199 Display Access188.8.131.52 Symbols5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays184.108.40.206 Initial Survey220.127.116.11 Scope the Improvements18.104.22.168 Prepare the Interface Design Team22.214.171.124 Brief the Board Operators126.96.36.199 Execute the Interface Design Effort188.8.131.52 Obtain Operator Feedback184.108.40.206 Transfer to the New System220.127.116.11 Summary5.8 Case Study5.9 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter5.10 ReferencesAPPENDIX 1: Checklist for Equipment Design6. WORKPLACE DESIGN6.1 Introduction6.2 Workplace Design Principles6.2.1 Introduction6.2.2 Controls and displays are optimally located6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible6.2.4 The workplace is designed for the user population18.104.22.168: People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the workplace22.214.171.124: Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population126.96.36.199: Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population6.2.5 Equipment is physically accessible188.8.131.52: Aisleways and corridors184.108.40.206: Distances are optimal between adjacent pieces of equipment220.127.116.11: Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms18.104.22.168.1 Stairs, ladders and ramps22.214.171.124.2 Walkways and platforms126.96.36.199 Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or mark to increase recognition6.2.6 Positioning work188.8.131.52: Position work within the range of motion of the body184.108.40.206: Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach220.127.116.11: Avoid static loads and fixed work postures18.104.22.168: Design to encourage frequent changes in body posture22.214.171.124: Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder126.96.36.199: Avoid work that causes the spine to be twisted188.8.131.52: Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are within their capabilities184.108.40.206: Minimize manual handling220.127.116.11: Provide specialized tools to reduce body stress6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to accepted Ergonomic Standards18.104.22.168: Major categories of workstations in the process workplace22.214.171.124.1 Seated workstations126.96.36.199.2 Standing workstations188.8.131.52.3 Sit/Stand workstations184.108.40.206 Selecting the optimal workstation design220.127.116.11: Workstation design standards18.104.22.168.1 Seated Workstations22.214.171.124.2 Standing Workstations126.96.36.199.3 Sit/Stand Workstations188.8.131.52 Seating6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability184.108.40.206 Design considerations220.127.116.11 Maintenance considerations6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles6.3 Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis6.3.2 Task Analysis6.3.3 LINK Analysis6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations6.5 Case Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant6.6 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the material in this Chapter6.7 References7. JOB FACTORS7.1 Introduction7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders 18.104.22.168 Normal Sleep 22.214.171.124 Sleep Behavior and Disorders 126.96.36.199 Fatigue 7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial Life 188.8.131.52 Shift Schedule Worked 184.108.40.206 Individual Differences 220.127.116.11 Personal and Social Life 7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design 18.104.22.168 Length of Shift 22.214.171.124 Rotation of Shift 126.96.36.199.1 Direction of Rotation 188.8.131.52.2 Speed of Rotation 184.108.40.206.3 Number of Consecutive Days off 7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork 220.127.116.11 Sleep 18.104.22.168 Diet 22.214.171.124 Keeping Body Clock in Synch 126.96.36.199 Personal and Mental Hygiene 188.8.131.52 Strategies for Night Work 184.108.40.206 Organizational Strategies 220.127.116.11.1 Education 18.104.22.168.2 Facilities Design 22.214.171.124.3 Career Opportunities 126.96.36.199.4 Planned Maintenance Napping 7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing Shift Schedules7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies7.4 Job Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis 188.8.131.52 Purpose of Task Analysis 184.108.40.206 When to Use Task Analysis 220.127.116.11 Who can perform a Task Analysis? 18.104.22.168 Process of the Task Analysis 7.4.2 Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology 22.214.171.124 Critical Task Identification Process 126.96.36.199 Critical Task Analysis 188.8.131.52 Follow-up Documentation7.5 Team-Based Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned 184.108.40.206 Implementation 220.127.116.11 During Training 18.104.22.168 Observations 22.214.171.124 Measure 126.96.36.199 Positive Outcomes 7.6.2 Recommended Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program 188.8.131.52 Recommended Program Elements 184.108.40.206 Practical Considerations for Implementation7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter7.9 References8 INFORMATION PROCESSING8.1 Human Error 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Why humans make errors 8.1.3 Mental errors 8.1.4 Display errors 8.1.5 Environmental causes 8.1.6 System factors that lead to error8.2 Plant signs and labels 8.2.1 Equipment labeling program 8.2.2 Designing signs and labels 220.127.116.11 Content of the message 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 Message layout 126.96.36.199 Appearance of Characters 188.8.131.52 Placement of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels 184.108.40.206 Pipe labeling 220.127.116.11 Electrical wire and cables labeling 18.104.22.168 Equipment labels 22.214.171.124 Equipment signs 126.96.36.199 Sampling points 188.8.131.52 Information signs8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures8.4 Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating training8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7 Operator workload analysis8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire8.7 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter8.8 ReferencesATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist9. THE USE OF HUMAN FACTORS IN PROJECT PLANNING, DESIGN AND EXECUTION9.1 Introduction9.2 Project management9.2.1 Management of major projects9.2.2 Management of Base Projects9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management9.3.1 Human Factors Tracking DataBase9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental Review9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard and Operability Reviews (HAZOP)9.3.6 Procedures9.3.7 Analysis Techniques9.3.8 QA/QC Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review9.3.10 HF awareness for Construction Contractors and Company Personnel9.3.11 Post Project Review9.4 Review questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter9.5 References