Environmental Hydraulics book cover

Environmental Hydraulics

Hydrodynamic and Pollutant Transport Models of Lakes and Coastal Waters

Hydrodynamic and pollutant transport models are useful tools for evaluating remediation options for polluted water bodies. These models span the range from highly theoretical, fine resolution, physically-based designs to lumped, black-box representations of real world phenomena. This book examines the numerical approaches used in hydrodynamic and pollutant transport modeling. First, the theory and physical basis of transport and mixing in lakes and coastal waters are provided. Methodologies that use a three-dimensional (3D) approach to predicting the fate and transport of pollutants are presented and this is followed by a presentation of alternatives to 3D circulation modeling as well as new advances in the field. These alternatives offer near 3D accuracy but without the computational burden. Illustrations of the calibration and verification of these models using laboratory data, as well as, field data are also provided. The models are applied to a diverse array of study sites ranging from The Great Lakes in North America to the coastal areas of Northern Crete.

Audience
Civil and Environmental Engineering consulting firms dealing with water quality in lakes and coastal regions; professionals and upper division undergraduate and graduate level Geophysical, Environmental and Civil Engineering students

Hardbound, 368 Pages

Published: December 2006

Imprint: Elsevier

ISBN: 978-0-444-52712-7

Contents

  • Preface
    1. Introduction

    1.1 Environmental Hydraulics
    1.2 Methodology
    2. The Mathematical Theory of Circulation Models
    2.1 Governing Equations
    2.2 Basic Assumptions
    2.3 Turbulence Closure
    2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions
    2.5 Circulation Theory
    2.6 Model Considerations
    2.7 Finite Difference Method
    3. The Vertically-Integrated Two Dimensional Models
    3.1 Governing Equations
    3.2 Numerical Methods
    3.3 Numerical Experiments
    4. Three-Dimensional Circulation Models
    4.1 A Vertical-Horizontal Splitting 3-D Model
    4.2 An External-Internal 3-D Model (Princeton Model)
    4.3 An Operator Splitting 3-D Model
    4.4 A Control Volume 3-D Model (IDOR)
    4.5 A Fully Three-Dimensional Model
    4.6 A Large Eddy Simulation Model
    5. Quasi Three Dimensional Circulation Models
    5.1 Q-3D Model
    5.2 Vertical Eddy Viscosity Distribution
    5.3 Vertical Horizontal Integrating (VHI) Method
    6. Particle Trajectory and Pollutant Transport Models
    6.1 Particle Trajectory Models
    6.2 Numerical Schemes for 2-D Pollutant Transport Models
    6.3 Numerical Schemes for the 3-D Pollutant Transport Model
    7. Numerical Analysis of Coarse Fine Grid Models
    7.1 Approaches to Modelling Near Shore Areas
    7.2 Algorithm for Coupling the Coarse and Fine Grids
    7.3 Applications to Hamilton Harbour
    7.4 Applications to Toronto Waterfront
    7.5 Applications to Lake Biwa
    8. Model Verifications with Analytical Solutions and Laboratory Data
    8.1 Pollutant Transport and Residence Time in a Model Basin
    8.2 Study of Wind Induced Flows
    9. Model Applications to the Great Lakes
    9.1 General Circulation in the Great Lakes
    9.2 Bacterial Transport of the St.Clair River in Sarnia
    9.3 Toronto Waterfront Receiving Water Study
    9.4 Hamilton Harbour Study
    9.5 Cootes Paradise Study
    9.6 Lake St.Clair Study
    9.7 Lake Simcoe Study
    9.8 Little Lake and Crary Park Marina Study
    10. Model Applications to Other Lakes and Coastal Waters
    10.1 Model Application in Gretan Pelagos (Mediterranean Sea)
    10.2 Model Applications to Lake Biwa
    11. The Future in Hydrodynamic Modelling
    11.1 Environmental Information Systems (EIS)
    References
    Appendix
    Subject Index

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